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Computer Servicis 

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Publishing since the concept began back in 1985- We 
offer free advice to all prospective customers, and can 
offer existing site referrals. 

If you you wouid like to know more about Apple 
Computer Systems, and how they can help your 
business, then contact us right away for a free 
information pack, or call and see us at our new 
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As appointed Apple 

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able to offer substantially 

reduced prices to schools, 

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Universities; also to full-time 

students and lecturers. A 

similar scheme applies to 

Churches, Teaching 

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Charities. Orders must be 

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The All Apple 
User Group 
Committed to 
All Apple Users 
including Macintosh 


tosh JL. 



December 1989 


P.O-Box 3, 


L21 8PY 

Fax. *il ■»*» ***** 



Chainnan's Corner 

Letter Box 

Hardcore Pips 

Workbench — A review 

Hga to Sinclair QL Linkup 

The L Test 

GS Font Editor 

Ilgs Machine Language — A review 

War In Middle Earth — A review 

Finder. EasyDrivc & Proscl — A comparison 

Vanilla SCSI Tape System 

Apple II GS/OS— AppleLink PE Transcript 

Using the Clanmlre MicroWatch 

Program Writer 2.0 — A review 

Hotline News 

AppleWorks 3.0 - A review 


The Nibbler 


On i n is 5 — A review 

Dcja Vu — A review 

New Service to Members 

Snippets from the States 

Book Reviews 

Artificial Intelligence 

What Do You Do With Yours? 

Network News 

T N # 229 A/UX 1 . 1 Toolbox Bugs 

T N # 228 Swopping MMU Mode 

MulllFit v 1.5 — A review 

Software Circus 

Implementing Undo 

HyperCard Forum 

Balance of Power 1990 — A review 

User Groups 

Members' Small Ads. 

Advertisers Index 


Ewen Wan nop 


John Sharp 

Elizabeth Utflewood 


Stuart Aitken 


BUI Mealey 


John Beattle 


Dave Ward 


John KJshiinoto 



Kenneth Buchholz 



Jeremy Quit m 


Dave Ward 


Dave Ward 


Peter Davis 


Keith Rookledgc 



Norah Arnold 


Bill Pearce 


Ccri Fisher 




John Arnold 


Anna O'Connell 


Mike Dawson 





Norah Arnold 



Larry Rosensteln 



Ceri Fisher 





A new service to members 

see page 50 for details 

There are a number of 

ways to contact 


Force users who have a query about 
the service can contact the adminis- 
trator. John Lee. directly for help 
and advice. Call him on the number 
opposite or send a message to his 
box on the Force. 

If you wish to order goods or 
services from Apple2000. call Irene 
on niiu :ai;ia: a u t»i or (during ofllce 
hours) call Alison on -" •■'■'- 'ttnmuTr. 
Both have Ansafones, In case 
they're not around. Alternatively 
you can Fax. to atfcu .**«*< 
write to the PO Box or (if you use 
comms) you can leave orders on 
TABBS addressed to the SYSOP. 

If you are experiencing problems 
with Apple hardware or software 
Dave Ward and Tony Dart run the 
Hotlines and will try and help you. 

We are very interested in the 
activities of local user groups, and if 
you have any information which you 
would like publicised John Lee 
would like to hear from you. 

We reserve the right to publish, 
without prejudice, any advice or 
comments given to members in the 
Journals of Apple200O. 

A little praise for a few of our 
authors wouldn't go amiss. Send all 
comments, and contributions, via 
the PO box. especially suggestions 
about what you would like to see in 
your magazine. 

Apple2000 supports users 
of all the Apple computers. 
The ITT 2020, I, H, II+. //e, 

//c, //c+. iigs. ngs+. ///. 

Lisa, XL, Mac 128. 512 

MacPlus. SE. SE/30. Mac II. 
Ilex. Ilci. IIx and Mac Portable 
Contributions and articles 
for the magazine are always 
welcome, we can handle any 
disk size or format. Please 
send to the PO Box, L21 8PY. 


In general the front half of 
the magazine is for the Apple 
II, Apple Ilgs and Apple /// 
The back Half for the Macin- 
tosh and Lisa. Look out for 
the descriptive page icons. 


Apple n. //e and //c 
Apple /// 
Apple Ilgs 
Macintosh, Lisa 
Macintosh II 




The Force and 
Local Groups 

John Lee 
Voice -: smusii 


Irene Flaxman 

: i.t i; 

aim - 

■ sioiiii 

Adverts / Admin. 

Alison Davles 

Apple II Hotline 

Dave Ward 
Mon-Frt 1900-2100 

Macintosh Hotline 

Tony Dart 

Mon-Fri 0900-17.00 1900-2100 


Ewen Wannop SYSOP 
Modem W& » 

December 1989 


Chairman's Corner 


CI First of all this month I have 
some announcements. John 
Elver wishes to apologise to any- 
one who turned up for the Mac/ 
Apple event at Filton last month, 
and who missed the notice in 
Apple Slices. Since the event was 
first mooted, it grew out of all pro- 
portion, and John was obliged to 
postpone It till the spring of next 
year. We shall keep you posted as 
soon as we have a new date. 

Secondly, the Apple II HotLIne 
has a new phone number. It is still 
run by Dave Ward, and he will still 
answer queries on the old num- 
ber. However he now has a spank- 
ing new extension to his house, 
complete with a dedicated phone 
solely for the Apple II Hotline. 
Please note the new number 
(0889 562859) and use it from 
now on. 

Finally, a big welcome to all the 
new members we signed up at the 
Mac User show. I hope you find 
Apple2000 to your liking, and 
that you may be able to contribute 

to the Group In some way in the 

The astute among you will have 
noticed the birthday cake that has 
been added to the designs at the 
top of this page. Apple20O0/ 
BASUG is ten years old next year. 
Started soon after the Apple II or 
Should I say OT 2020 hit the 
shores of England. Apple2000 
has been supporting users of ALL 
Apple computers throughout its 
ten years. 

We have seen the rise and fall of 
the Apple /// and the Lisa, and 
the rise and continuing success of 
the Apple IT series and the Macin- 
tosh series. We shall be continu- 
ing to support ALLApples, regard- 
less of what new computers we 
may see launched in the future. 

BASUG started as a group of 
volunteers who had a crusading 
desire to help each other In what 
ever way the could. We continue 
into 1990 in the same vein. We 
rely on the goodwill and bound- 
less energy of a select band of 

helpers, and the input that all the 
members make with articles for 
the magazine. We are not able to 
pay for these articles, and can 
only offer the glory of seeing your 
name in print! 

As various committments can 
take people out of this circle of 
volunteers, we have a continuing 
need to recruit new helpers into 
the fold. The most prominent 
opportunity to offer help is the 
AGM which is held in April each 
year, but we accept offers of help 
at any time! If you would like to 
help us. please get in touch with a 
committee member and offer your 
services. You may be j ust what we 

And now a word from our spon- 
sors ... or more correctly, a word 
about our advertisers. We have a 
number of dealers who advertise 
in the pages of Apple2000. We rely 
on these advertisements to help 
us produce a magazine of the 
quality you have come to expect. 

Many of these advertisers show 
Applc2O00 a great deal of good- 
will. We would like you to return 
this goodwill and use these deal- 
ers wherever possible- Please also 
tell them where you saw their ad- 
vertisement. This will make them 
feel wanted, and the whole cycle 
will be able to repeat Itself. Some 
of the advertisers will offer a dis- 
count to Apple2000 members. 
Give them a ring and see what 
they can do for you. 

Finally, I wish you all a very good 
Christmas, and a prosperous New 
Year for 1990. 
Ewen Wannop 4 

Annual subscription rates are £25.00 for UK residents. 
£30.00 for E.E.C. residents and £35.00 for other overseas 

Apple2000™ is a trading name of BASUG Ltd. a non- 
profit making Independent company limited by guarantee. 

The contents of this journal are copyright of BASUG Ltd 
and/or the respective authors. Permission is granted for non- 
commercial reproduction providing the author and source 
are properly credited and a copy of the relevant journal is 
sent. The opinions and views expressed are those of the vari- 
ous contributors, and arc not necessarily supported by 

Tills Journal Is published bi-monthly by DASUG Ltd as a 
benefit of membership in February, April, June, August, 
October and December. The copy date is the 1st day of the 
month preceding publication. Advertising rates arc available 
on request 

Apple™ and the Apple logo are trademarks of Apple 
Computer Inc. Macintosh™ is a trademark of Macintosh 
Laboratory Inc and used with the express permission of the 
owner. Telecom Gold™ Is a trademark of British Telecom pic. 
The FORCE™ and Apple2000™ are trademarks of BASUG 

The Editorial team is: 

Apple II 

Ewen Wannop 


Norah Arnold 
Irene Flaxman 

Many thanks to all those who work behind the 
scenes and who receive no personal credit. These 
people are the stalwarts of Apple2000. 

Additional thanks to Walter Lewis of Old Roan Press 
(051-227-4818) for our printing service, and to Ian 
Sharp of Sharp Studios (051-236 5442) for our cover 
design. (Graphics for the cover design supplied by 
MacMemories. Specialised fonts for the cover design 
supplied by Lexltrope.) 

Apple2000 are Founder Members and 

Wholehearted Supporter of the 

Apple User Group Council 




December 1989 

Apple /// Letterbox 


Dear Members, 

In a University In Iraq there Is an 
Apple ///. new but unused. Does 
anyone have any suggestions about 
what It could be used for? In this 
country, suffering from a severe 
shortage of foreign currency after the 
recent war with Iran, everything has 
to be used and there is difficulty In 
buying another computer. 

I would like to hear from anyone 
who has software for this computer, 
whether In Roman or Arabic script. 
The operating system is there but 
probably nothing else. Copies of 
Public Domain programs would be 
welcome, especially If accompanied 
by operatlnc Instructions. 

As I myself have never used on of 
these machines I have no Idea what to 
advise the Iraquls. 
EG Matthews 

Q The Apple /// is built round the 
6502 chip but has 128k of Ram and 
an 80 column screen as standard. It 
runs under the SOS operating sys- 
tem. ProDOS was a development of 
the SOS system and is very similar. 

If the operating system disks arc 
there, then there should be an emula - 
tor disk to allow the /// to operate as 
an Apple II emulator. This will run a 
number of Apple II programs includ- 
ing almost all of the DOS 3.3 pro- 
grams. However programs running 
under ProDOS 1.1.1 or later will not. 
However if you run programs under 
ProDOS 1 .0. 1 you might be able suc- 

The /// ha9 the same slots as the 
Apple II, so many cards will work in 
them, however the Interrupt line Is 
not active and so some communica- 
tions programs may not work with 
serial ports. 

This is about the limit of my knowl- 
edge on the ///. I do know we have 
some members who own these ma- 
chines, perhaps they could help. Also 
refer to the article on page 18 of the 
April 89 Issue of Apple20O0 for more 
details of the /// and public domain 

Software. Ewcn Wannop flk 

Has Font Letterbox 

Market Drayton 

Dear Sirs. 

I don't expect you to publish this 
letter, but the information may be of 
use to you if anyone asks about the £ 
sign In TlmeWorks Publish-It! 

Publlsh-Itl is one of the only two 
none GS software that I own (Apple- 
Works the other). It really Is a great 
program, and It is more like a GS 
program than an ordinary Apple II 
program. The new Publish -It! 2 is 
vastly Unproved and offers many new 
features. ITie one criticism of Publish- 
It! is that the fonts don't have the £ 
sign in them. In a past edition of 
Apple2000 magazine I noticed that 
someone write In saying why didn't 
TlmeWorks use GS fonts in Publish- 
It!. thus the £ sign would be In them. 
Hie following comments were taken 
from an article about GS ($C8) fonts, 
and Publish-It! ($F7) fonts: - 

"Although the file structure be- 
tween CS fonts and Publish-/*/ fonts is 
exactly the same, there Is a difference 
in their design. TlmeWorks. the com- 
pany which wrote Publlsh-Itl, has 
stated that their fonts are designed 
with a special aspect ratio. Most GS 
fonts have the wrong aspect raUo for 
use with Publfsh-It/and will appear to 
be squashed and narrow when use 
with that program. 

The reason for the difference in 
aspect ratios, comes from the fact 
that most Ilgs fonts actually origi- 
nated on the Macintosh. On a Mac, 
the pixels (or dots) on the screen are 
square. On a //e or Ilgs, the pixels on 
the screen are rectangular. Super- 
fonts, by Beagle Bros., corrects for 
this difference within the program. 
Tlic programmers at Publish-IU de- 
cided that a better solution was to 
design the fonts especially for the // 
c. This is why they used a different 
Aletypc for their fonts." 

The part about Beagle Bros, cor- 
recting the difference Is one to note. 

Recently I received direct from 
Beagle Bros, in the US, their GS FONT 
EDITOR Tb my surprise It not only 
edits GS fonts, but also Publlsh-lt! 
fonts. It doesn't mind which format 
you are using (brilliant work by 
Beagle Bros.). It treats them both the 
same, only you know the format. It 
can't load one format and save Into 
the other - It saves the format the 
original font was in. It is a good little 
program (except for a very annoying 
bug - you can't save t o a different disk . 
You have to save to the disk you called 
the font from. You can get round It 
though, by going through the process 
of loading a font from another disk, 
but not actually loading it. It will then 
save to that disk), and doesn't have to 
have a GS to use it. It will also run on 
a //c and //c. It works exactly like a 
normal GS program, and you must 
have a mouse. It will swap the charac- 
ters around with no problem, you 
don't have to redraw them. Eg. copy 
the £ over the #. 

I then set about editing the $F7 
fonts. The problem is that the fonts 
don't have the £ sign In them, they 
only have the keyboard characters (# 
instead of£).TTius I would have to edit 
# to get the £ sign. 1 then came up with 
a better Idea. Use the £ sign from the 
many GS fonts available, and paste it 
over the # in the $F7 fonts. This 
worked perfectly, but because of the 
aspect ratios mentioned above, the £ 
looked too thin when used in Publish 
It! You have to select pretty thick £ 
signs from the GS fonts, or edit the 
thinner ones to look right. I have 
matched them up pretty well. You 
couldn't tell that the £ signs came 
from different fonts. I had a problem 
with Wllmette.72. the Font Editor lust 
would not recognise it. It does load 
point 72. so this was very strange. I 
converted It to a GS font, and It still 
didn't recognise it. I had to use a 
Public Domain GS font editor to draw 
it In, and then convert back to a $F7 

When you come to use the edited 
fonts in Publish It! you still get the # 
on the screen, but when you print out 
you get the £. This Is because when 
Publish-It! prints out. it takes the 
fonts from the disk - It doesn't load 
them into memory like the GS pro- 
grams do . This the beauty of Publish 
Itl Using too many fonts in GS pro- 
grams soon uses up the memory. In 
Publish! tl you can use as many and 
as large fonts as you want, and never 
worry about running out of memory. 

If anyone asks you about editing the 
fonts In Publish-It! Just mention the 
GS FONT EDITOR to them (it also has 
Helvetica and Times In sizes 54 & 72. 

Please submit all letters and articles to the magazine on disk wherever 
possible. The disks will be returned to you when the magazine Is 
published. If you have a modem, send us letters, articles and Public 
Domain programs either to BSG005 or toTABBS Mr.;;. * 2 . 

December 1989 


Included on the disk). It has a few 

minor bug9, but the people at Beagle 

Bros, certainly know -what they are 


Christopher Beckett 

LI Well we did publish the letter, and 
we have a review of the GS FONT 
EDITOR elsewhere in the magazine. 

The problem of the pound sign 
being unavailable will probably crop 
up time and time again. The standard 
Macintosh font has the usual charac- 
ters In the lower half of the font set, 
and has a large number of special 
characters In the top half. To get 
access, to these characters on the Mac 
you simple use the Option key in 
addition to the normal key presses. 
Few programs on the GS allowed this 
to happen. However, with the new 
System 5.0 for the Ilgs. AppleWorks 
GS now displays these special char 
acters Just like on the Mac. So press- 
ing the Option key and the '3' key 
gives a pound sign. 

Beware of changing the £ sign for 
the # sign If you intend to print to a 
LaserWriter. The laser font not having 
been changed Itself, will still display 
the # sign. However. I would not ex- 
pect that many are using Publish it! 
with the LaserWriter. 

Ewcn Wannop t 

Hardware Letterbox 


Dear Ewcn 

By now you will have received a 
letter for Jon Gurr of MCA answering 
my queries regaling the two pieces of 
hardware that was the subject of my 
recent letter to you. 

You will also see from the content of 

that letter thai I had another reply to 
my query so in all there was a very 
satisfactory conclusion to the effort 
put In by yourself and Apple 2000. 
many thanks. 
Steve Hollintghurst 


Dear Jon 

I am writing to thank you for your 
kind effort in answering the query I 
put to Apple 2000 re the TABS MOD- 
FUNCTION CARD, it was a pleasure 
to know that you had made the effort 
to clear up my confusion regarding 
those two items. 

Just prior to receiving your letter I 
had a phone call from a Mr P Dyson 
who had a Multifunction card that 
had gone faulty and who offered me 
the faulty card together with the Soft- 
ware and the piggy-back board you 
mentioned and also a printer cable 
and the manual that went with the 
card. I have since received the Items 
and installed the card and everything 
seems to be working OK. This was a 
relief particularly as when 1 bought 
the card It had no protection and had 
obviously been well handled and I 
feared that it would be useless, fortu- 
nately this is not so. 

With regards to the TADS MOD- 
ULES I must admit to a smile at your 
very ably pulling the ladder from 
under my feet by your "even IT state- 
ment. I cant say that I am over 
dlsapolnted as I really have no use for 
the hardware a 
much for them. 

the hardware and did not pay very 


RGB Monitor for £7!! 

Dear Editor. 

I do not need a colour monitor very 
often. I also lug around equipment 
occasionally and a monochrome Is 
much lighter. When I bought a new 
Ilgs system recently I therefore did not 
feel like spending the extra hundreds 
of pounds for a colour monitor. 
However I did also happen to buy a 
colour TV for family use and I chose a 
model which offers an KGB input via 
a SCART-type socket at the back 
(Salora model 15 L30J. 

The pin out for the KGB socket was 
published In Open Apple (now A2 
Central) last year. The connections 
for the SCAKX socket are included in 
the manual of the TV. All I had to do 
was buy a 15 channel male D-typc 
plug and length of 9 channel cable 
from my Apple dealer, then buy a 
male SCART plug from my TV dealer 
(total cost 6 pounds and 75 p.), bor- 
row a soldering iron, and I would have 
my part-time RGB monitor. The 
connections are shown in the table. 
My first attempt yielded a full-colour 
but rolling image. I had connected the 
Apple "synch" signal to the "blanking" 
Input on the TV. A call to the Salora 
service department revealed that it 
should have been connected to the 
composite "vidco-In" input. A quick 
swap of pins in the connector and all 
was well! 

Signal Apple Ilgs Salora SCART 

So thank you once again for you 
kind thoughts and my best wishes. 

Steve Holllnehurat 6 

Red Earth 
Red Signal 
Blue Earth 
Blue Signal 
Green Earth 
Green Signal 












TV TABBS message system is more than just a Bulletin Board. With a shopping 
mall where you can browse the Apple2000 catalogues and order the goods you 
require; a library containing over 1300 files for the Apple II, Ilgs and Macintosh; 
news files update twice weekly bringing you the latest in world computer news and 
of course NewsByies™ ; a private and public E-mail service; file transfers that can 
be enclosed in private or public mail; message areas covering many topics includ- 
ing the Apple II, the Ilgs and Macintosh; Xmodem, Ik Xmodem and Ymodem file 
transfers; multi-speed access at all common speeds; 24 hour operation; and much, 
much more makcTABBS the premier Apple Bulletin Board serving Europe. Give 
TABBS a call today. 




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December 1909 

Hardcore Pips 

The BASUG archive continues this 
month the Debugging Tips from 
February 1983 

More Debugging Tips 

Some debugging hints were covered 
In the last Beginners Page. There are 
a number of things that can go wrong 
so we will carry on trying to sort out 
further problems. 

Having carried out the tips In the 
last article, your program may still 
not work because you have errors 
which are errors of logic of some sort. 
These are harder to debug, because 
the computer doesn't tell you directly 
where the program is going wrong. 

Consider the mistake of a misdi- 
rected line number. 

10 FOR N - 1 to 10 

20 M - N * N 

30 IF M-N > 30 THEN GOTO 60 

40 NEXT N 


60 END 

600 PRIWT "IF N - *;N ; "THEN M- 


What we want to happen Is that If 
the difference between M and N is 
greater than 30 then we print the 
value of N (which as shown below 
should heppen when N reaches 7). 
Because of mistyping In line 30 the 
program is directed to line 60 Instead 
of the correct 600. By looking at the 
listing this is fairly obvious. However. 
this UsUng Is short and because of 
this It is easy to pick the mistake up. 
This is often not the case, especially If 
line 600 does not come up on the 
screen at the same time as the offend- 
ing line. Let us look at a procedure for 
finding out what the problem Is. 
Running the program produces the 
prompt back. 

You know it should produce a 
printed result, so your Immediate 
reacUon is to say 'IMPOSSIBLE!! 
STUPID * # % I! COMPUTER' - but it 
Is your fault In fact. 

The first thing to do Is print the 
values of N and M. Once you are out of 
the program In Immediate mode then 
the variables are still stored within 

So Just typing: 

? N,M 

produces the answer - 
7 49 

A quick calculation with pencil and 
paper says this Is correct. If N = 7 then 
M » 7 • 7 and If N were 6 then M would 

be 36, M - N would be 30 and so the 
value of M-N would not be greater 
than 30. Thus 7 is the value we ex- 
pected to cause it to go out of the loop 
with at line 30. 

By printing these values directly 
then you know that that part of the 
program Is working correctly. Why 
then is is not going where you want it 
to? Where Is It going? In this case 
looking at line 30 tells you that the 
mistake Is that It is going to line 60. In 
more complicated cases It may not be 
as easy. It would be of great help if the 
computer told you where the program 
was Jumping to. 

Fortunately the APPLE has Just 
such a means of letting you know 
what Is going on. l"he special com- 
mand Is TRACE. Ifyou set the trace on 
and type RUN as follows the screen 
should look like: - 

#10 #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 

#20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 
#20 #30 #60 

Every time the computer goes 
through the line it prints the line 
number with a '#* in front of It. 

You can look at the listing and fol- 
low It through working out logically 
what should be happening. This is 
called "dry running", and would be 
useful to do this In case. 
Line 10 first sets N - 1 
Line 20 find the square of N and sets 

the variable M equal to It. 
Line 30 checks the value of M-N with 

the number 30, if M is less than 30 

then It ignores the rest of the line. 

Since M-N » then the program 

moves onto line 40. 
Line 40 sends the program round the 

loop. i.e. back to 20. 
Line 20 says N Is increased by 1 to 2. 

It Is not yet equal to the Limit of 10 

so carry on to line 30 again and do 

the check once more. 

It continues going round and round 
until, when N ■ 7. M-N Is greater than 
30 and the statement being true al- 
lows the GOTO 60 to be executed. The 
last line number printed out by the 
tracing routine is 'ff6Q\ If you have 
noticed this then the error is picked 

In this case it Is possible to put the 

llsUng and the trace on the screen. 
Normally great lines of accessed line 
numbers arc generated and the your 
eyes will go funny trying to keep up 
with what Is happening. One way to 
overcome this is to use the same 
faculty you can use to slow listings 
down, the CTRL-S. Put the second 
finger of your left hand on the CTRL 
key and keep it there. Put your Index 
fingers over 'S' key. By pressing the'S' 
key alternately as an on and off key, it 
la possible to have very fine control 
over the scrolling. 

Correct the error In line 30 by 
making it 600 instead of 60 and RUN 
the program again. What happened? 
All the Une numbers appeared again 
with something on the end:- 


#10 #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 


#20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 
#20 #30 #600 IT N -7 THEN M - N IS 

The trace facility was still on and 
when It came to line 600 11 carried out 
the print acUon straight after printing 
out the '#600". This is very useful If 
you wish to find out at which line 
number a particular statement is 
being output or where an input is 

Trie trace facility would be a nui- 
sance hereafter so switch it off by 


Ttie next stage Is too long to carry on 
with so it will form the next beginners 
page. Meanwhile :- 

More Syntax Errors 

Type in the following lines and run 

10 LET PLANK-20 
20 LET PLOB -30 

Trie answer will be 30 because the 
APPLE only interprets the first two 
letters of a variable name. To the 
APPLE therefore PL is the last variable 
name using those letters first. 

So Ifyou find your variable is not the 
value you thought it should be, think 
what you have called other variables. 

This will not give you a syntax error, 
but ifyou have variables such as the 
following, you will come up with the 


where you have used it. 

Such examples a9 NEWT. CROC. 
ANEW. AGREE would be interpreted 
as a mixture of the BASIC command. 
Ifyou had typed In the following: - 

10 LET AGREE - 5 

When you listed It, It would come 
out as 

10 LET A GR EE - 5 

This is because the Interpreter sees 
the G R of the graphics command and 
TOKENISES' it . that is It saves It as 
a special character of Its own. *»■ 

December 1989 


a s 

Try the following program :- 

70 FCR N - 1 TO 8 

80 Q(N) - M 

90 NEXT N 

and RUN It. 

Since there Is nothing output to the 
screen then there Is no visible evi- 
dence that the program has done 
anything. The array QO has however 
been filled. This happens even when 
other parts of the program are writing 
to the screen. It is possible to find out 
If variables arc what you think they 
are by Inspecting them In immediate 
mode Just by typing In from the key- 
board, so that for example if you 


3 is the result 

We can also use variables so 


Is Just as valid. Try It and see that 
the following is the result 

So what is this? Surely since the 
loop has gone around from 1 to 8. N 
has become 8 why do we not get the 
value 8. 


is OK. So try 


NOTE 11! when you come out of a 
loop the value of the variable you are 
changing has always gone one more 
step than you specified. When the 
program reaches the NTEXTln line 750 
the value ofN Is Increased and then it 
goes back to the beginning of the loop 
at line 700 and tests If the value of N 
is greater than 8. Only if It Is not will 
It go through the loop again, other- 
wise it will try to find the line following 
the NEXT statement line numbered 
greater than 750. 

It Is sometimes the case that when 
running a program, you realise It is 
not going the way you thought. In this 
case you press CTRL C and try to sort 
it out from there. 

Add line 75 as follows: - 

75 FOR DLY - 1 TO 500: NEXT 

This is a very useful general line. It 
is a time wasting statement, simply 
sending the line round and round 500 
times so that time is used up. In tills 
case It is there to make the program go 
slower so that we can press the break 
keybeforelthas finished. You can see 
the delay as follows :- 



tlO #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 #20 

#30 #40 

#20 #30 #40 #20 #30 #40 #20 #30 

#40 #20 #30 #600 IF N - 7 THEN M 


THAN 30 
#70 #80 #90 #75 #80 #90 #75 #80 
#90 #75 #80 #90 #75 #80 #90 #75 
#80 #90 #75 #80 #90 #75 #80 #90 

Every time the computer reaches 
#90 the screen display stops. 

Having switched off the trace func 
Uon with NOTRACE, then RUN the 
program again and when It has 
passed the first loop and has printed 
out, and before it has finished press 
CTRL C. The message: - 


comes up. 

This is a very Important aspect of 
debugging. A program may appear to 
have gone away - technically known 
as "hanging", if you press <BREAK> 
then it will tell you that you have 
stopped at a particular line. If you 
now type 


it will CONTinue where it left off. 

In practice you would probably 
print out some of the variables in 
Immediate mode In the meantime. 
This would in this case for example 
yield the following informaUon:- 




and yo u know you have broken in to 
the program when the outer loop had 
a value of N=3. The value of N was 
preserved and It was able to carry on 
even though you had printed the 
value of N. You can even alter the 
value of N and still allow it to con- 





This means that you would not have 
Ailed the array when N was equal to 
4.5 and 6. To show this type the 
following In immediate mode:- 

FOR N - 1 TO 8 : ? Q (N) ; : NEXT 


The line containing the FOR ... 
NEXT loop should be on one line 
without pressing <ENTER> until the 
end of the line. Do not forget the ":" so 
that the values are printed in one line, 
or you will possibly scroll off the 

Now alter line 80 to 

80 Q(N) - M 

run the program again, without 
BREAKJng and repeat the last exer- 
cise :- 

FOR N - 1 TO 8 : ? 0,(N);:NEXT 
49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 


This time since M Is fixed by the 
previous loop to 49. and all the values 
of the array are the same. 

If this was an error of typing, miss 
lng the N key and hitting the M in- 
stead, you would have a clue instantly 
especially if you then printed M and 
found It to match. 

One other way to pick up t his type of 
error, i.e. of getting all the values 
wrong without at first knowing why 
would be to go straight to the appro- 
priate loop directly. This can be done 
in two ways:- 

RUN 70 or GOTO 70 

They are both valuable tools. Sup- 
pose we carry out the same exercise 
and print the value of the array vari 
ables as before, using RUN 70. the 
result would be as follows; - 



FOR N - 1 TO 8 : ? Q(N);:NEXT 


The value of M has automaUcalry 
been set to zero by the RUN com- 

The command GOTO does not zero 
all variables. Try the following using 
the <BREAK> key to halt the program 
after the value of M has been set. and 
see that the array variables are all set 
to 49 again 






GOTO 70 


FOR N - 1 TO 8! ? Q<N);:NEXT 

49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 

In fact. Just to prove the point, the 
alteration of the variable first could be 
done as follows: - 
M - 99 

RUN 70 

FOR N - 1 TO 8: ? Q(N) ; : NEXT 


or as follows 
M - 99 
GOTO 70 

FOR N - 1 TO 8 
99 99 99 99 

? Q(N);: NEXT 
99 99 99 99 

The same tricks can be used with 
strings. If the string variable has not 
been assigned, it will not of course 
print anything. So the following holds 

? A$:? B$ 

means that A$ was empty (a blank 
line was printed) and B$ had been set 
to FRED. 

John Sharp - February 1983 4 


December 1989 

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Elizabeth Littlewood explores a 
powerful wordprocessor from Addison 
Wesley for the //e, //c and llgs 


Wordbench Is an integrated writing 
program meant for authors, in par- 
ticular technical authors who would 
probably benefit most from the vari- 
ous modules provided. The program 
runs under Prodos 8 and is provided 
on 4 double-sided 5.25 inch disks and 
also on two 3.5 Inch disks. It Is not 
copy protected and is quite easy to 
install on a hard disk. A minimum of 
128k Is needed and the program Is 
suitable for the Apple He. lie. or IIGS. 

There are three major parts to the 

Erogram. a word processor, an out- 
ner and finally a section which takes 
care of the presentation, formatting 
and output of the documents pro- 
duced. These tasks and associated 
ones are covered by the following six 
Wordbench Applications: 




Print Manager 

Folder Manager 

Add-In Manager 

As well as the applications modules 
there are a number (7) of Desktop 

Format Tool 
Reference Tool 
Word Search 

The Help function was particularly 
welcome and 1 found it useful at the 
beginning as there Is quite a lot to be 
learned about this program. Tlicrc 
are a lot of functions to be memorised 
even although the desktop tools avail- 
able are always displayed at the bot- 
tom of the screen. 

The lack of a mouse was disconcert- 
ing (to a confirmed mouse lover) and I 
found I was reaching for it all the time 
at the beginning and In fact, even after 
weeks of use I still wanted to use the 
mouse whenever trying to position 
the cursor. How the cursor moves 
depends on d liferent combinations of 
keystrokes and some I never remem- 
bered to use. Choosing items from a 

menu Is easy, and the response is 
fast, and can be done either by using 
the arrow keys to highlight the rc- 

3ulred item or In some cases by typing 
le initial letter. The latter method Is 
not always available but is the fastest 
way to move through the various lev- 
els of the program. 

I also found at first that I disliked 
working on a screen of black back- 
ground and white text. Although I still 
miss the ability to adapt screen and 
text colour to rest my eyes, I have In 
fact become used to the black and 
white and It is actually sharp and easy 
to read. The other problem with the 
program Is that It Is not WVSIWYG. 
The default printer is the Imagewriter 
II and though you can produce Italics 
on screen you are not going to get 
Italics printed out. Printouts are 
therefore always going to look, in my 
opinion, as though they had been 
'typed'. If using dlflerent fonts Is really 
Important, then the only solution 
would be to print the document as an 
ASCII file and export It to another 
program. This would seem to be a 
waste of time In using Wordbench In 
the first place unless some of its fea- 
tures were very much wanted. 

I used this program over a couple of 

months and since I have to write 
articles and papers fairly frequently. I 
found It extremely useful. However 
my particular style of working meant 
that I never really came to terms with 
the Outllner as it simply felt artificial 
to set out an outline which I already 
had firmly fixed In my mind. On the 
other hand, the Notetaker was an 
Invaluable part of the package. No 
doubt if I were writing technical pa- 
pers then the ability to create and edit 
footnotes would also have been wel- 
come. The same can be said for the 
easy creation of a Bibliography. The 
most useful of the extras was the 
Bralnslormer In the Add-In Applica- 
tions module. I made extensive use of 
the Freewrtting session, not only was 
It exactly what was needed on many 
occasions to get my thoughts flowing 
but it amused me to find that it gently 
chlded me and told me to keep writing 
when I momentarily dried up. That 
alone was almost enough to make me 
like this program and what's more I 
did as I was told and started writing 
again . The word processor Is slm pie to 
use and easily keeps up with my 
typing speed which though not pro- 
fessional Is quite competent and 

The screen layouts are well de- 
signed with a large text area. Along 
the top of the screen Is the Prompt 
area containing program prompts 
and Instructions which vary accord- 
ing to which application is being run. 
The Status Line Is found at the bottom 
of the screen and indicates whether 
you arc in insert or ovcrstrikc mode. 
This is also where the list of available 
Desktop Tools Is shown. As I said 
before, the Help tool Is particularly 
Important when first using this pro- 

When one of the tools or a macro is 
called then a new window pops up 
which overlays the main window. Tlic 
new window is always positioned so 

Fig 1 Wordbench Main Menu 

Select application with + or *r> then press KUAuaa. 

Press OH for Help 






. . Plan structure and flow 
. . Gather infomaUon 

rite and edit cocunem 

. . Print documents and texts 

, . Organize folders and settings 

. . Access other applications 

, , Save uorb and exit 



8 |E 


December 1989 

that the portion of text being referred 
to. for example a word whose syno- 
nym is being sought, remains visible. 
This sometimes means the text be- 
neath Is scrolled but sometimes It 
means that the pop-up window is 
shifted. This slowed me down at first 
as windows and prompts weren't 
always where I expected them to be 
bu t once again I became used to It and 
came to appreciate that I would al 
ways be able to see the appropriate 
text beneath* Hie re Is one Irritation 
about these tools, shortcuts (macros) 
and add-in applications which still 
exists and that Is trying to remember 
whether to use <return> or <open- 
apple return> or <escape> to finish. 
There are always prompts available, 
true, but when working at speed one 
doesn't always look at them and the 
required keystrokes can vary quite a 


Like all Addison-Wesley products 
that I have ever seen, the packaging 
and documentation are excellent. *Hie 
whole package arrives in a neat box 
which feels quite heavy which Is not 
surprising since it contains two large 
manuals, a tutorial and a quick refer- 
ence card as well as the afore-men- 
tioned disks. The manuals are glossy 
covered, well indexed and contain 
some useful appendices. There are 
wide margins which I always like to 
see as I am one of those people who 
like to make marginal notes. Tlie two 
main manuals are the User's Guide 
and the Reference Manual. The aulck 
reference guide is on glossy card and 
the Inside has space for notes about 
shortcuts designed by the user. 


The tutorial manual is made up of 
four sessions lasting from 30 minutes 
to one hour depending on the lesson. 
The first lesson Is about the basic use 
of Wordbench and starts with a re- 
ml nder to make back-up copies of the 
disks and refers you to the User's 
Guide If you are still unsure about 
loading and starting up. Once you 
have the tutorial started up, you are 
taken through an entire Wordbench 
session using a flic provided. Since 
this is the first lesson. It is primarily a 
lesson tn entering text and editing it. 
Editing and enhancing blocks of text 
Is also covered as Is the ability to 
Insert footnotes. How to access the 

on -screen help function 19 explained 
and a brief look at the Reference Tool 
Is taken. How to create folders and 
save your work obviously is explained 
at this stage as you might want to 
continue practising with this lesson 
later on but leave the original file 

Lesso n two deals a bit more with the 
Reference Tool. Having had an earlier 
look at the Reference Assistant, we 
now also learn how to link notes to a 
reference, enter new references, edit 
and order or re-order them. How to 

Fig 2 Writer Menu showing Prompt and Status Lines 




-I , 1 , 1- 


% "- 

■% ' K 


Wordbench Is a 
particular technic 
various lodulis pr 
provided on 4 doub 
disks. It is not 
hard disk, ft iini 
for thi Apple lit* 

There art inn 
outliner and Final 
fonattino and out 
mociiteo ones ir 




i icant. for authors, in 

n integrated writin 

al authors who voulo probably benefit lost fro* 
ovided. The prograi runs under Prodos 8 and is 
li-sided 5.-25 inch disks and also on two 3.5 inch 
copy protected and Is quite easy to install on a 
iui of 1281c is needed and the prograi Is suitable 
lid or 115$. 

e njor parts to the pro^raiii a word processor, an 
U a section which takes care of the presentation, 
put of the docuients produced. These tasks and 
e covered by the following six Uordbench 



use the Outliner and the Notetaker 
are the main themes of lesson two, 
however, and all the usual points are 
covered such as creating outlines or a 
set of notes and then editing them. 
Collapsing and expanding outlines is 
explained and also marking and sort- 
ing of notes. 

Lesson three effectively covers how 
to pull it all together, merging texts 
from the various sources such as 
outliner and notes and adjusting the 
formal. The Brainstormer, which is 
an add-in application. Is used in this 
lesson and finally the text produced is 
analysed In various ways e.g. spell- 
checking the text ana performing 
word counts are two of the options 

The final lesson deals with 
Wordbench Shortcuts, in other words 
how to create macros which use the 
option key in conjunction with an- 
other key or sequence of keystrokes. 
Twenty shortcuts are already avail- 
able but you may re-define these as 
well as create new ones. By the time 
you have worked through all the 
above lessons, you will be able to use 
Wordbench adequately but there is so 
much available In this program It 
would be useful to spend some extra 
time on the learning process. 

Wordbench refers to text files cre- 
ated by the Writer as documents, 
other texts being known rather obvi- 
ously as outlines, notes and refer- 
ences. All associated text flies are 
stored in a work Folder. How to create 
these is covered in the following short 
guide to some of the functions of this 

On first entering Wordbench you 
will be taken through a menu which 
establishes where your various fold- 
ers are to be found and which work 
folder to use in this session; then you 
will be presented with the main pro- 
gram menu. '11 Us shows the six main 
modules mentioned at the beginning 

(see fig.l). Since word processing is 
probably familiar to most readers, 
lets start with the Writer. 


When you enter the Writer a new 
menu page (see flg-2) Is presented 
which allows you to start work on a 
current document unless this Is the 
start of a new session. If this Is so then 
first a list of documents In the Work 
Folder is shown. You then have the 
choice, as displayed in the File Selec- 
tion Window, of working on a previ- 
ously created document or starting a 
new one. You then choose Write from 
the Writer menu and you will have the 
normal text entry screen before you 
with the cursor positioned at the 
point you were last working. Both 
Insert and overs trike mode of entering 
text is possible and sticky spaces, 
sticky returns and soft hyphenation 
are all provided. Although sticky re- 
turns will ensure that paragraphs are 
kept together, they may still spread 
over two pages, so the Format desktop 
tool should be used if the paragraphs 
are to be kept on the same page. 

As well as the Format tool which 
deals with line spacing, paragraph 
Indentation, underlining of lext and 
such, there are Viewer and Reference 
tools. It is also extremely useful to be 
able to spell check a word, find a 
synonym or even do a word search 
when one Is unsure of the spelling 

and all without leaving the lext entry 
screen. One can of course also spell 
check the document from the main 
Writer menu. The Viewer Is probably 
the tool that makes Wordbench such 
a flexible program. From the Viewer 
one may look at any text Item In the 
current folder, any other folder and 
Importantly the Library Folder. Hav- 
ing called some text Into the Viewer It 
may then be copied wholly, or a se- 
lected part. Into the current text field 
of the Writer or of the Notetaker when 

December 1989 


iS H 9 

Fig 3 NoteTaker screens showing the 4 fields and full set of 
Desktop Tools 

Pnss Ouaiua when done 

NOTE 3 OF ? 

SUBJECT' of Hot«$ 



Note* consist or four fields and nay be narked according to in outline link; 

a reference* subject or a text string (used at in identifier) in the text 



working there. A more comprehensive 
merging ability exists In the Merge 
facility of the writer main menu. Fi- 
nally the Reference tool allows crea- 
tion, editing and sorting of references 
which may then be copied into appli- 
cations or marked for printing by 
themselves. For example, the refer- 
ences could be used as footnotes in a 
text document or printed as a sepa- 
rate bibliography. The Reference 
Assistant is also called up via this tool 
which will give guidance on the cor- 
rect way to enter references to such 
varied publications as books, disser- 
tations. Government publications, 
interviews, letters and periodicals. 
Miscellaneous entries such as those 
for film, paintings, radio programs 
etc. are also advised on. 

The nexl erilry in the Wrilermenu Is 
the Edit facility. This has all the usual 
capabilities such as copy, move, de- 
lete, undo last edit etc. and many of 
these can also be called up without 
leaving the text entry by using Open 
Apple M. The Search and Replace 
functions are especially interesting in 
that they allow a search for a condi- 
tion such as double spacing, a head 
ing or a sticky space and so on and not 
Just for text occurrences. Tills is also 
the place where you have the option of 
directly entering and editing foot- 

The Change Document function Is 
simply as its name suggests. Hie 
merging facilities called at this level 
via Merge let you merge in outlines, 
notes, or both as well as text from 
other Wordbcnch documents. You 
may also import text files from other 
applications which have been saved 
as ASCII files. 

As well as being able to perform 
word counts and spell check the text, 
or mark misspelled words for later 
editing. Analyze offers Find Matching 
Words which means you can mark 
words which have been found to have 

a match In a word list. The word lists 
already on offer are a list of sexist 
words, commonly misused words and 
a list of wordy phrases. A punctuat Ion 
list is also provided and new lists may 
be added by the user. Once words 
have been marked you can ask for 
only the marked text to be displayed 
and after viewing 11 choosing Unmark 
all Marked Text will then remove the 
markings. Ifyou want to unmark only 
some of the special text It Is necessary 
to use the Edit facility. The text may 
also be collapsed to display only the 
headings if wished. 

Finally Settings is where one 
chooses how the headings should 
look, paragraph formats and tab set- 

Willie working on any text, it is 
advisable to save at regular intervals 
and fortunately this is easily done by 
typing Open Apple U so that one 
doesn't need to leave the work area 
and move up and down through the 
various levels of the program. In fact 
many functions can be carried out at 
all levels even if the method varies 
depending on the level you are at. 


The Outliner menu consists of the 
Outline, Collapse. Expand, Labels 
and Modify functions. Choosing Out- 
line lets you start creating and editing 
a new outline or loads in the exisUng 
one. Only one outline of course is 
possible in any one folder. The outline 
may be up lo four levels deep and each 
level can have as many as 26 head- 
ings but there is an overall limit of 255 
headings In the outline. The Collapse 
and Expand functions are as they 
suggest and it is possible to collapse/ 
expand one level or all the way. When 
an outline is collapsed, any headings 
which have subheadings are marked 
with an asterisk. Three different op- 
tions are provided by Labels so that 
headings and subheadings may be 

identified by number and letter (the 
Standard format), numbers only, or 
no Identifiers. In addition to normal 
editing while creating the outline. 
Modify caters for block editing and 
there are inbuilt protections which 
make sure you don't try for example to 
move blocks of headings to inappro- 
priate places in the outline. Outline 
headings may be linked to notes cre- 
ated in the Notetakerand also merged 
into the working document in which 
case the outline headings become 
section headings and are shown In 
the format set up in the Writer menu. 

The Notetaker 

Tlie Notetaker Is probably me key to 
using Wordbenoh successfully. Not 
only can you use it as a means of 
Jotting down ideas to be used later but 
the ability to link notes to an outline 
is particularly powerful. Starting a 
new document in the Writer by merg- 
ing linked outline and notes could in 
fact be the document or at least the 
first draft of your document. The 
Notetaker menu consists of New Note, 
Mark. Browse/Edit, and Sort. Notes 
consist of four fields (see fig. 3) and 
may be marked according to an out- 
line link, a reference, subject or a text 
suing (used as an Identifier) in the 
text area. Compound selection crite- 
ria are allowed but no more than two 
fields may he chosen. A rher.k mark Is 
placed against any note that has been 
marked. When using the Browse/ 
Edit facility, one then has the choice 
of seeing all the notes or only those 
which have been marked. Sorting of 
notes can be done either by Outline, 
Reference or Subject, otherwise notes 
will appear in the order that they have 
been entered. Notes linked to a par- 
ticular outline heading will remain so 
even If the heading is moved to a new 
position in the outline. 


All the settings for documents, 
notes etc. are made via the Folder 
Manager and so are the Prin t Defaults 
for all the various texts that can be 
produced I.e. this is where one de- 
cides how footnotes, bibliography, 
references and so on, as well as the 
main document text, should be 
printed. Ihe Printer Manager is where 
one chooses which of the printer driv- 
ers to use. the Imagewriter II being the 
default printer. ASCII text may be 
printed by choosing the printer driver 
identified as Plain. One can also cre- 
ate a "new" printer and modifications 
may be made to the default printer 
codes if for example you would like to 
replace italics, which your printer 
might not support, with another text 
enhancement. There is a 0-page ap- 
pendix in the User's Manual covering 
all the possible print settings for 
documents, references, footnotes, 
etc. and I don't £eel I could possibly 
deal with them all hrre. Once you 
have chosen Print and selected, from 
the list of texts in the work folder. 

10 J£ 


December 1989 

Fig 4 

Print Format settings just prior to printing a docu- 



Do you yant to chanss print foreat settings (Y'N)? N 

Characters per inch CCPM : i! 

characters on line: 78 

Pa9e Ltn$th (lint*)' 66 

Tqd Margin (Lines)" 
Bolton nargin (Lines)- 
Left Margin (Characters): 


Print taxtl 

Una ;pjci"5' 
include ill text : 
Treat page 1 if title page 
Print Bibliography? 
Outdint For first Lints : 
Lines between entries: 
Which to print 1 
For* to print* 
Line spacing 
Title 1 mfUtrmr 








Print Footnotes* 


Position t Numbering' cmiXWr$ 

Divider froi text; 

Si '. 

Start Wo. frou- 


Line spacing of noU : 
Text end note labels* 



Position of labels' 


Space after note label - 
Style of note label • 



Stylo of text label- 
Print fabli of Contents? 

m »i 

Include beads through level 
Nueber heads through level: 
naxieuR length] of headings 



Filler betueen bead t Ho.< 


Page No. headers t footers; 
Spices to indent each level 


Ltne spacing- 


Title' mti iV frfttffftr 

what Is to be printed, you then have 
the option of overriding the default 
settings and making a final decision 
on how your printout should appear 
(see flg.4). 

Shortcuts and Add-In Applications 
Wordbench is already a program 
with a wide range of facilities to aid 
the author, but it doesn't end there. 
Not only can you customise 
Wordbench and define macros, 
known as Shortcuts to Wordbench. 
but the Add-In Manager allows for 
other applications to be added to 
Wordbench. One add-in module is 
already provided, the Bralnstormer. 
There are four brainstorming mod- 
ules to choose from, two of them 
designed to encourage the flow of 
ideas and two to help you be concise 
when defining your aims. These are 
Freewritlng. invisible Writing. Goal 
Setting and Nutshelllng. Invisible 
writing which displays asterisks 
rather than the text you are typing is 
essentially a variation of the 
Freewritlng option. Freewritlng was 
the one I used most frequently. You 
may set a Ume limit for yourself but 
when It Is reached you may extend It 
If wished. No editing is allowed in this 
mode and If you stop typing for more 
than a few seconds you are reminded 
to "Keep Writing". As 1 said, it works! 
The final text can of course be copied 
into Writer and editing can then be 
carried out there. You will almost 
certainly need to do so! Nutshelllng 
and Goal Setting both use the prin- 
ciple of restricting the length of text 
entry. You are therefore forced to set 
down your Ideas as concisely and 
clearly as possible but some simple 
editing is allowed so it Is possible to 
work at refining your ideas before 
saving (hem. Nutshelllng allows 8 
lines of text in which to state the maLn 
idea of your work whereas Goal Set- 
ting, with only 2 lines per categoiy. Is 

intended to help you identify Subject, 
Point of View. Audience and Purpose, 
these being the 4 categories pre- 


Altogether, Wordbench is quite an 
impressive package but I feel that this 
article can only been a brief overview. 
The learning curve for this program is 
probably a long one and mere is al- 
ways a tendency for humans to stop 
at the point where they can get rea- 
sonable results. 

However to get full value, I think one 
would need to persevere a bit longer 
than 1 did. It Is undoubtedly a pack- 
age most useful to authors although 
the word processor can be used for 
any text file production. The lack of 
WYSIWYG is a drawback in this pro- 
gram, otherwise the documentation 
and performance are both of a high 
standard and I would say this is defi- 
nitely value for money In a possibly 
specialised market. 

Elizabeth Littlewood ft 


Product : Wordbench 
Publisher : Addison Wesley 
Available from : 


P.O.Box 3 


L21 8PY 

Price : £154.22 inc VAT + P&P 

Value : * t* * « 

Performance : etetetet 

Documentation ; tititjejei 






BIKE HIKE £11.95' 



PIPELINE £11.95' 

TRADE (PD) £4.00' 


ALTERNATE REALITY II (dungeon) £9.95 
ANDROMIDA TRILOGY ugamfsj £4.00* 





DEFENDER (PD) £4.00* 


ELITE £9.95 






HIGH SEAS £14.95 







RDF 1985 £9.95 
REBEL CHARGE*! cnickamauga £14.95 


ROADWAR 2000 £9.95 

SHILOH £995 










December 1989 



Apple llgs Linkup to 

Stuart Aitken talks to the opposition 
with his llgs and describes both 
the success and the pitfalls 


A friend and myself recently had the 
idea of linking our two computers 
together via their RS-232 serial ports; 
it was a kind of challenge. We thought 
that it would take days and prove to 
be really difficult, but fortunately It 
didn't, even though the serial ports 
tried to hinder us. We achieved our 
aim In that we were able to talk to each 
other and also transfer files, both 


The first problem was the RS-232 
ports (Note: although the Apple HGSs 
port is an RS-433 port. It is compat- 
ible) - what pins would we link to- 
gether? Had we both had the stan- 
dard 25 way 'D' socket, it would have 
been easy, Just requiring a standard 
25 way plug to 25 way plug cable (and 
possibly something else - see later 
on). But do Apple or Sinclair stick to 
the standard? No. Apple using the 
elusive 8 pin Mini DIN connector and 
(he QL having a slightly easier to 
obtain 6 pin BT phone plug. The dia- 
gram below shows the way RS-232 
ideally works: 


IX RX ( TX ■ transmit) 

RX TX { RX « receive ) 


shaking out ) 
HSIN HSOUT ( HSIN = hand- 
shaking in ) 

Handshaking is an Interesting 
thing, often confusing. It works like 
this - The HSOUT line tells the other 
device whether or not it Is ready to 
receive data (e.g. its buffer may be full 
up). It is only enabled when the flrst 
device Is ready to receive. The other 
device should check Its HSIN line and 
only transmit when the other device 
indicates that it is ready. This works 
both ways. Some ports don't support 
handshaking; others won't work 
without- It can be Important. The 
problem Is that the handshaking 
lines aren't given simple names like 
HSOUT and HSIN. they arc called 
DTK (Data Terminal Ready). DSR 
(Data Set Ready), CTS (Clear To 
Send), RTS (Ready to Send) and oth 
ers. When two different devices have 

totally different handshaking lines, it 
may not be clear which to connect to 
which. A manual that has pin-out 
details of the port should provide the 
answer, by indicating which pin is the 
handshaking output and which pin is 
the Input. However, do remember 
that the output of one has to be con- 
nected to the input of another, and 
vice versa. 

This leads me nicely onto another 
problem, namely that there are two 
different types of RS-232 ports. DTE 
(Data Terminal Equipment) and DCE 
(Data Communications Equipment). 
A DTE port Is correctly wired, but on 
a DCE port, the receive, transmit and 
handshaking pins are reversed. This 
was so that Ifyau had a computer with 
a DTE port, it could be connected pin 
to pin to a modem, that had a DCE 
port. I mentioned earlier that it would 
be easy to connect two 25 way D' 
ports together - In actual fact, difficul- 
ties may be encountered with the 
DTE/DCE problem. If you are con- 
necting together two computers with 
different RS-232 ports, there should 
be no problem, but use a lead that 
connects pin 1 to 1. 2 to 2 etc. How- 
ever, if you are connecting together 
two 25 way D* ports that are the same 
(e.g. both DTE), either you will require 
a cable that crosses the appropriate 
wires or an ordinary cable and some- 
thing like a wiring box. that permits 
you to link the pins you want. My 
advice, if you are trying to link two 
ports that have totally different sock- 
ets, is first, make your own cable, or 
modify a cable and secondly, so as to 
not get mixed up with the pins. Is to 
use the Dili port where there is an 
option (if there is only one port. It is 
likely that it will be a DTE port). 
Finally, before connecting up. be sure 
you know exactly what you are doing, 
asa wrong connection could leave you 
with a lot of dead computer! 

In my opinion, you really need some 
commercial terminal software. How- 
ever, some Basics, such as the QL's. 
have commands relating to serial 
ports and you may be able to write a 
simple piece of terminal software in 
Basic, but you will be unlikely to be 
able to transfer flics using this. Obvi 
ously, both computers will have to 
use the same baud rate, but they also 

must be using the same number of 
start, stop, data and parity bits, 
which I feci is oAen overlooked. Be- 
ware of faster baud rates which may 
only work with specific combinations 
of start and stop bits etc. I had no 
problem transmitting or receiving 
data at all baud rates up to the Apple's 
maximum of 9600, although I would 
advise something slower, because at 
that speed buffers could be filled very 
quickly and If the cable is unshielded. 
a noisy line could cause corruption of 
the data. 

Transferring files was no problem at 
all. using a terminal program: the 
handshaking worked fine no data 
was lost. However, be careful in a 
powerful Basic - the QL Basic can 
copy a file from disk to the serial port, 
but there was a problem In that the 
file header Information was transmit- 
ted also. If transferring graphics files 
between dlfferen t makes of com puter. 
it is very advisable to convert the file 
to a standard format, such as GIF 
(Graphics Interchange Format), as 
trying to write a Basic program to 
Interpret a "foreign" graphics file is 
verydlfilcultlThere is a program to do 
this on the HGS In the Apple 2000 
library, called ShowfUe. In my opin- 
ion, such a link would be best for text 
files, as these are most likely to be 
needed to be transferred from one 
computer to another. When transfer- 
ring program specific files, such as 
Appleworks files, first get the program 
to make an ASCII copy of the original 
file and transfer this. dBase II won't 
be able to make head or tall of an 
Appleworks file, but It could do some- 
thing with an ASCII file. 


My RS-232 link up was a great 
success and I was. to a limited extent, 
able to control the HGS (in Basic), 
from the QL, and vice versa. It was 
also very cheap, as I simply connected 
a 25 way 'D' socket to my modem 
cable and then wired this to a termi- 
nal block that went to the serial port 
on the QL. Total cost - £3.25. 1 would 
recommend it as a good way to trans- 
fer data between two Incompatible 

Stuart Aitken * 

12 g 


December 1989 

The 1' Test 

Learner drivers test experience: 
My first Hard Disk Drive 
by Bill Mealey 

I decided I could do it I had read and 
reread all the articles In the maga- 
zines about the SCSI Hard Disk and 
after seeing Ewen Wannop's feature 
in the April Edition and Nibblcr In the 
following edition I decided to have a 

°DEREK HUGHES of Seagale men- 
tioned in Nibblers writing supplied 
me with a ST 277N-1 64mb. 
SEAGATE DRIVE and a massive 
150watt power supply with its own 
cooling fan for the very reasonable 
sum of a little over £400. he also 
supplied the required software, a 
pleasure to deal with him, the drive 
arrived within 24 hours of my order. 

I noted that the Apple SCSI card 
required for use with the Seagate 
ST277N-1 had to be the"C" Rom ver- 
sion. I phoned my order for the Apple 
SCSI card and a cable to 
spoke to me and took my order, he 
warned me that this was a difficult 
project and that the warranty on the 
card would be void If there was any 

The card and cable arrived, card 
OK. cable wrong type (I must remem- 
ber to send it baclq. 

Try as I could I was not able get 
anyone to supply the correct cable. In 
the end 1 made up my own using the 
wiring diagram from the Apple 2000 
Magazine April edition. 

Then I tried to buy a case, any kind 
of a case, no luck there, all the Apple 
people 1 tried to buy one from had had 
requests for this item before from DIY 
people and said they could order one 
BUT it would take some time etc. etc. 
. so I finished up making my own case. 
I had this 1 50 watt power supply in a 
great big case with Us own fan this 
was redesigned into the drive case 
that I had made up and the unit was 

Now I had the whole bag of tricks 
together 1 found that the drive had 5 
pairs ofID pins and the illustration for 
the drive In the Universal Manual only 
had 4 pairs, I could not And any 
InformaUon for the ID Jumper con- 
necUons. many phone calls later, and 
after I had been told that 1 would not 
do any damage with the Jumper con- 
necUons if I used the wrong pairing. I 
tried all the permutations that I could 

think of without any success. I could 
not get past the first partition stage, 
not having any experience with hard 
di sks it took me some time to convince 
myself that it might be something 
other that the ID connections. 

I found out that Ewen Wannop was 
away for a few days, that source of 
help was cut off for a while. 

the time I 
had been 
trying to 
find out 
how to wire 
up I had 
been re- 
reading all 
the maga- 
zines I could lay my hands on I read a 
feature on hard disks in Computer 
Shopper by Paul Mullen, from the 
Computer Advice Centre. Tonbridge. I 
phoned his office to speak to him, he 
was away, and one of his colleagues 
Martin Saul, could not have been 
more helpful he listened patiently to 
my tall of woe and he said he was sorry 
he had no experience of this drive and 
he could not find any references in his 
office, then came up the most helpful 
of all suggesuons why don't you ling 
up the makers?. Yes. he then gave me 
the phone number for Seagate UK I 
thanked him for his Information. 

m a n 
me the 

nectlons and promised to post a me a 
proper manual for the ST277N-1 (it 
arrived ) he then asked me had I got 
anything from the drive at all . He told 
me to disconnect the cable from the 
drive to the CPU and power up the 
drive, (this allows the drive to do a self 
test routine) then count the number 
of flashes on the drive LED this indi- 
cates the state of the drive. I did as 
Instructed and I counted 8 flashes. I 
reported this to my newfound friend 
whereupon he told me the drive had a 
what a mouthful) and the fault was 

not serviceable by user he advised me 
to contact the supplier and inform 
him of our conversation and to obtain 
an replacement drive. 

Soon a new drive was on its way to 
me, the old one returned and a credit 
note promptly Issued for the old drive. 

I used the Information from the 
feature on Hard Disks out of the April 
Apple 2000 magazine and followed 
step by step the Instructions using 
the software outlined In this feature. 

Within a hour or two of receiving the 
new drive it was up and running and 
for first time on the Ilgs. it was a great 
feeling. After sorting out the missing 
mbs. I spent some time finding the 
best Interleave by following the in- 
structions on the SCSI. HACKERdlsk 
settled for 1 1 and started TEST UNIT 
and pauenUy waited (this takes some 
hours) saw on the screen UNIT 

PASSED I threw my 'L' plates 

away, and that Is the story of how I 
passed my test. 

I can not recall any of the articles 
that I have read menUonlng the DISK 
test without the CPU being con- 
nected. It would have saved me a lot of 
time had 1 known. 

Finding the case and cables Is the 
only problem unless you can get them 
made for you. the rest Is easy. I can 
not understand now why I thought it 
was difficult, read the manual, make 
sure you have the correct software 
and cable connections, power up and 
follow the menu prompts. 

The moral of this story Is find an 
expert to advise you. If vou need help. 
I found all the people I asked for 
assistance most cooperative If they 
are reading this thank you one and 

Regarding my driving test, I gave 
myself a pass, if I can do it anyone 

BUI Mealey * 

Background material on writer. 

Bill Mealey was a National 
Paper (Dally Mirror) picture editor 
working out of the Manchester 
office he took to computers when 
he found that It was more fun to 
type letters with a word processor 
after he retired a couple of years 
ago. he started with an Amstrad 
8626/ then on to a to EuroPlus/ 
likes using Apples, now using lie 
and 1 lgs. thinking about a Mac. 
his only regret Is that he didn't get 
hooked on computers years ago. 

December 1989 


£ | 13 

GS Font Editor 

John Beattie looks at t he new Font 
Editor from Bea gle Bros 

As a ftreat fan of Applcworks GS. the 
lack of a version localised (or should I 
say localized ?) for Great Britain has 
bothered me since I got Appleworks 
GS almost a year ago. Its Inability to 
delete words from the original dlctlon- 
ary( making color, for example, an 
acceptable spelling) Is a minor nui- 
sance; Its Inability to show and print 
a £ sign was something which drove 
me to a seething rage of frustration. 

All the more so since the majority of 
GS fonts already contain the £ sign. 

Unfortunately* this has been rele- 
gated to ASCII 163 and. since most 
programs (Appleworks GS included) 
use. show and print only those in the 
range to 128. the £ sign remained 

Certainly, some shareware pro- 
grams (Font Doctor. Font Editor and 
Font Switch - all available from Apple 
2000) could show (he availability of 
the £ sign and. with some Judicious 
-wing and a prayer - Juggling, I had 
managed to produce a font with a £ 
sign In a reasonable number of sizes. 
But It wasn't easy. 

Enter Beagle Bros' GS Font Editor 
to the rescue! 

The package 

It is everything a good commercial 
package should be: well packaged 
and presented, with an excellent 
manual, It comes on both 5.25 and 
3.5 Inch disks and is hard disk and 
ram disk Installable. 

It works on the He. lie and II c+ as 
well as on the GS. Why would anyone 
want to use a GS font editor on these 
other machines, you might ask. Well. 
GS Font Editor can be used to modify 
GS fonts so that they can be used In 
Publish It and other non-GS pro- 

Here I should, perhaps, declare an 
Interest. GS Font Editor was origi- 
nally a Styleware product and was 
held up by that company's absorption 
into Claris which was mainly for the 
purpose of Claris obtaining Apple- 
works GS. However. Beagle Bros., 
who have been heavily Involved in 
Classic Appleworks add-ons, have 
picked tliis up, put finishing touches 
to it and released it under their label. 
Before Apple 2000 was approached 
by MGA who supplied the copy for 

review, 1 had already seen GS Font 
Editor advertised In In Cider and had 
asked a friend going to the States to 
get It for me. 

So I was already committed to the 
Idea of GS Font Editor and I certainly 
wasn't disappointed by the reality. It 
Is a program which follows the Apple 
Golden Rule that you should be able 
to take it from Its package, boot it up 
and start doing some useful work 
within 10 minutes or so. It is also a 
program which has depths which are 
welldocumentcd In the manual. 

Booting the Program 

Booting up presents you with a 
main screen with a menu bar In the 
usual format comprising Apple Sym- 
bol. File. Edit and Special. 

The screen then Is split 
Into left and right portions 
: the Font window on the 
left, showing. In a grid 
pattern, the characters 
present In the font 
currently loaded for 
editing. The char- 
acters are not 
shown In the 
font itself In 
this window, 
this Is left 
for the right 
hand sec- 
tion of the 
Samples of 
the font are 
shown. In 
plain style. 
on the right 
hand por- 
tion clears 
t h e 
area to al- 
low you to 
type in any 

characters you may wish to view. This 
Is necessary since in the larger sizes of 
fonts, there Is not room to show all the 
characters in the font at once. 

Using The Font Window 

The Font window is a 16 by 16 grid 
with spaces for all the possible char- 

acters (255) in a font, plus the missing 
symbol which Is usually an empty 
rectangle. Clicking on a character in 
this grid takes you to the Edit screen 
where the charac ter Is displayed . with 
its ASCII code in hex and decimal 
above it, six boxes to the right of It 
showing the character in each of the 
styles - plain, bold, Italic, underline, 
outline and shadow, while to the left 
there are 8 tools with which to alter 
the character. 

Again, these tools follow the Apple 
guidelines and comprise marquee, 
hand grabber, four arrows, pencil. 
eraser, straight edge, rectangle and 
oval. The only tool which Is unusual 
here Is the four arrows which move 
the font rectangle without moving the 
character. Even Beagle Bros, say that 
they're not 9ure why this Is useful but 
that the Macintosh font editors 
theyVe seen let you do this so they 
figured they had to build It In. too! 


Editing a character is a straightfor- 
ward process, using the tools avail- 
able. The font can then be saved with 
the same name (l.e. over the original) 
or with a different name so as to 
preserve the original font Intact. 
Again, the manuaisets out the alter- 
natives and examples of "good" and 
"bad" font names for your guidance. 
Characters can be cut or copied and 
pasted Into new locations In the grid, 
so that It Is not 
necessary to build 
a new character 
completely from 
scratch. For ex- 
ample, an accented 
e could be created 

simply by copying 
and pasting an e 
into a new grid lo- 
cation, then adding 
the accent and re- 
saving the font. The 
accented e would 
then be available by 
the keystroke which 
accessed the new 
grid location. To as- 
sist in this, the manual 
contains a Key Chart 
showing the keystrokes 
requlrccT for each of the 
255 ASCII characters. 
Since these vary from the 
straightforward pressing 
key m to get the character m 
to pressing Option u then u 
again to get u, this chart is 
most helpful. Copying. cutUng 
and pasting could also be used 
to customise a font for use, for ex- 
ample where a teacher of a foreign 
language wanted to write class ques 
Uons using French or German char- 
acters bul did not want to have to re* 
member awkward keystroke se- 
quences, the characters could be cut 
and pasted Into easier locations, per- 
haps using the locations of charac- 
ters not needed by the teacher. 

14 Q 


December 1989 

The Special Menu 

TTic Special Menu lets you scale an 
entire font to make it larger or 
smaller, hide the styles of the charac- 
ter being edited In the edit window, 
get information on the current font's 
name, size and ID and edit the next or 
previous character, automatically 
resaving the font changes as it goes. 

Using The Program 

I have used GS Font Editor over the 
last 3 weeks both to modify charac- 
ters in a font individually, switching 
them into handier locations, editing 
them to look different or creating new 
characters and to work on whole 
fonts, renaming them and resizing 
them. I have never been able to get GS 
Font Editor to misbehave: it does 
what it sets out to do without a hitch. 

For those of you with Apple works 
GS a tip and a word of warning: it 
seemed that it would be easy to 
change the Shaston font by switching 
the $ sign to the £ sign and thereby let 
the Spreadsheet module display fig- 
ures with a pounds instead of a dollar 
format. This I thought could be ac- 
complished by switching the $ and £ 
characters in the font and resaving 
the font However, if you look in your 
fonts folder in the system folder, you'll 
find only Shaston 16. Change this 
and, although you can then print the 
£ sign In Better Text quality in both 

normal and condensed mode, you will 
still get the $ showing up In all other 
prints. This is because Shaston 8 
which is the Font used by the Spread- 
sheet module is. I believe, held in 
ROM and can't therefore be modified. 
The reason It works in Better Text 
mode is that the GS looks for a font 
twice the size when printing in this 
quality and. when it finds the modi- 
fled version of Shaston 16* It uses 


So. all in all. a mast useful and 
informative package. I feel I have 
learned more about fonts and their 
construction from the manual to this 
program than from any other source 
(including A2 Central's special Issue 
devoted to fonts). The manual has a 
dry, laid back sense of humour that 
makes you feel that font editing is 

With the advent of GS/OS System 
5.0. things have changed for the bet- 
ter and now. like our Macintosh 
brethren before us, we can. by add! 
tional keystrokes, access those char- 
acters formerly unattainable. For 
example, togeta£slgn bothon screen 
and In print, you now press Option 
and 3 and, if the font being used has 
a £ sign at ASCII 163. it will be ac- 
cessed by System 5.0. However, there 
are still many uses for GSFont Editor. 

i . 


Product : GS Font Editor 

Publisher : Beagle Bros. 

Available from : 

MGA Softcat 

Pear Tree 


Kent TN26 2AR 

(0233) 83571 

Price : £39.95 inc VAT + P&P 

Value : «** + 

Performance : * * « • « 

Documentation : m m « « c 

from simple scaling up or down sizes 
to the creation of a character not 
Included in that font. And, although 

Ku normally think of characters as 
ters or numbers, they can be sym- 
bols or pictures: one friend Is thinking 
of constructing a font holding his 
firm's logo as a character which would 
then be easily accessible and print- 
able from within a document. 

John Brattle « 

Disks , Double sided £ 

3.5" Sony branded, box of 10.2DD 14 

3.5" Sony/TDK bulk packed, 25 off 20 

3.5" Sony, HD, box of 10,2HD 29 

3.5" HD bulk packed, 10 off 24 

5.25" 48 tpl , bulk packed, 25 off 8 

5.25" disk notcher 5 

3.5 " lockable storage box , 1 00 cap 7 

5.25" lockable storage box, 1 10 cap. 7 

Toner Cart.'s c 

Apple LaserWriter (black) 75 

Apple LaserWriter II (black) 79 

Computer Images 

15 Grove Market Place, 
Eltham, London, SE9 5PU 

Access/ Visa cords. 
Telephone: 01 - 850 3883 

Cables , size as stated £ 

SCSI 25 way to 50 way, 1m 13 

SCSI 50 way to50way, 1m 21 

8 pin to Imegewrlter 8 pin ,2m 6 

8 pin to Imegewrlter 25 way, 2m 10 

8 pinto modem, 25 way plug 10 

ANETklt 31 

ANET, cable, 10m 10 

ANET In-line coupler 6 

4 pin extension cable, 1.5m 8 

Printer ribbons, price per 3 off £ 
Fabric, black . compatables 

Imagewrlter II 1 1 

Imegewrlter LQ 24 

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Epson LQ 1000/ 1050 12 

Epson LX80/86 8 

Epson MX/FX80 1 

Star LCI 11 

All prices Include VAT, Carriage free, E&EO 

December 1989 



Apple llgs Machine 
Language for beginners 

Dave Ward rev i ews a primer on 
Machine language programming 

Apple llgs Machine Language for 
beginners Is a book published by 
Roger Wagner at about the same time 
as Merlin 8/16 first appeared. Roger 
Wagner was once a teacher before 
forming his own software company 
Southwestern Data Systems which 
may explain why his book Assembly 
Lines gets It deserved eulogies as a 
teaching aid. 

What does it claim? 

The book Apple llgs Machine Lan- 
guage for beginners does what it 
claims and more. It starts ofTdiscuss- 
ing Applesoft BASIC versus machine 
code through how to write machine 
code programs from Applesoft. It 
descriBes three assemblers; the one 
you get free with the machine (the 
mini assembler). Merlin 8/16 and 
APW from the Apple Programmers 
Workshop. The basics of machine 
code programming such 65816 regis 
ters. loops, counters, logic, shifting 
and simple mathematics are treated 
fully. Trie more difficult concepts of 
addressing modes and data storage 
are discussed, too. ProDOS 8 and 
ProDOS 16 arc covered followed by 
the Apple llgs and its memory man- 
agement and tool box routines. Fi- 
nally you are guided along the path to 
produce a simple painting program 
using many of the Apple llgs tool box 
routines. In each chapter the neces- 
sary 65816 Instructions and address- 
ing modes are discussed until by the 
end of the book almost all will have 
been described in detail. 

How big is it? 

The book has a little over 600 pages 
divided into 20 chapters and five 
appendices. A 3.5" diskette contain- 
ing all the programs Is available at an 
extra cost. I decided that I'd do better 
by typing In these demonstrations 
rather than get the diskette. That 
proved to be a mistake and I would 
like to thank MGA Microsystems who 
came: to the rescue by providing me 
with one. 

The Chapter and Verse 

Let's lust delve a little deeper into 
some of those 20 chapters:- 

The first chapter discusses the need 
for machine language by comparing It 

with Applesoft BASIC. Then follows 
the use of PEEK and POKES from 
Applesoft to produce machine code 
programs that can be CALLed from 
Applesoft to execute them. This flows 
well into the second chapter where 
the 'dreaded' hexadecimal number 
system, which is a prerequisite of 
machine language programming, is 
neatly covered and made clear. This is 
followed by some simple machine 
language programs. 

Chapter 3 deals with the Apple llgs 
mini assembler. Tnis mini assembler 
actually appeared in the first Apple ][ 
computers with the Integer BASIC in 
ROM but disappeared when Applesoft 
BASIC in ROM arrived with the Apple 
][ plus. Fortunately It re-appeared In 
late Apple //c and enhanced Apple / 
/e computers with a few additions. 
The Apple llgs Incarnation is. how- 
ever, vastly superior to the older ver- 
sions in Us capabilities, although 
many wouldn't call it an assembler 
because you can't use labelsll 

Chapter 4 shows how to use Merlin 
with small demonstration programs. 
Chapter 5 uses the same demon- 
strations to show APW the Apple 
Programmers Workshop. Those hav- 
ing both assemblers available may 
notice that APW is more difficult, long 
winded to use and assembles source 
file very much more slowly. Begin- 
ners. In particular, will find Merlin by 
far the easiest and pleasant to use. 
Don't, however, get me wrong! APW Is. 
perhaps, the most highly featured 
Apple llgs assembly language system 
available and is Invariably the choice 
of professional programmers. 

The next six chapters deal with 
programming concepts such as 
counting constructing loops and 
making comparisons. Simple arith- 
metic of the 6502 and 65816 is de- 
scribed and the logical operations are 
covered, too. The 65816 and 6502. 
too. are endowed with a wealth of 
addressing modes and these are fully 
covered using a printing program as a 
demonstration. Data storage, an 
Important area a programming Is 

Chapter 12 Is for Applesoft pro- 
grammers who want to use machine 
language routines then ProDOS 8 is 
discussed. At this stage you will be 

about halfway through the book. 
Most of the book so far will be of 
interest to all Apple // computer 

And there Is morel 

The rest of the book Is for Apple llgs 
users only since it uses the goal of an 
Apple llgs desktop simple painting 
program. The Apple lies is not only a 
fast classical 8-blt Apple // computer 
largely described In the first halfof the 
book but a 16-blt machine wldi the 
possibilities of 8 megabytes of RAM 
and a whole toolbox of subroutines In 
ROM and RAM that allow one to pro- 
duce desktop programs with windows 
and mouse input Just like the Macin- 
tosh. To use all tills extra memory and 
power a new operating system Pro- 
DOS 16 (now GSOS) has arrived and 
this is described In detail first fol- 
lowed by details of a set of tools called 
The Memory Manager. With all that 
memory available some method of 
managing it is necessary and to effec- 
tively run a full-blooded Apple llgs 
desktop program you'll need to make 
full use of The Memory Manager. 
Through the rest of the book all the 
necessary tools from the toolbox arc 
described in text and by the example 
of producing programs which slowly 
attain the goal of the simple paint 



When youVe read this book a few 
times and tried out all the programs 
you still won't know all there Is to 
know about Apple llgs programming 
and the toolbox, but an appendix 
gives a list of further reading. Other 
appendices list all the Instruction of 
the 65816 in some detail, explain the 
commands In the Apple llgs monitor 
and a Ustlng of a ProDOS 16 program 
that open reads and closes files, writ- 
ten In Merlin 16, of course. 

Final Thoughts 

Apple llgs Machine Language for 
Beginners is an excellent book cor- 
rectly deals with machine language 
programming for the two machines 
which constitute the Apple llgs. The 
book contains a lot of useful Informa- 
tion not only for beginners but also 
most other Apple // users. Mycopy of 
the book is fast becoming 'dog eared' 
due to over use. 

Dave Ward * 

Apple llgs Machine Language for 
Beginners :- 

Author :- Roger Wagner 
Publisher :- 

COMPUTE! publications 


North Carolina 

You can purchase this book from 
MGA Microsystems at £19.95 with 
the diskette as an extra £15.95. 



December 1989 

War in Middle Earth 

John Kishimoto descends into the 
abyss of a Tolkien adventure 


Reader's of J.R.R. Tolkien's classic 
"Lord of the Rings" will no doubt 
immediately recognise the location of 
this adventure/strategy game. Those 
who have not had the opportunity to 
read this book will find the manual 
instructive, and provides a good 
background to the scenario and main 
characters. The action takes place in 
the whole of Middle Earth, the elec- 
tive being the delivery of the One Ring 
to Mt.Doom In Mordor. Frodo Bag- 
gins, unlike the book, does not have to 
carry the Ring to Mordor himself. 
Should he perish In an encounter, 
another character can carry It to 
Mt.Doom. It should be said at this 
point, that the book Is not a particu- 
larly good guide in helping you along 
In the game. Although the objective is 
the same, the evil Sauron has a sig- 
nificant number of allies, in the form 
of Nazguls. Trolls. Wights and other 
creatures, making a straight assault 
with a small team very dLfflcult. A 
number of potential allies exists In thr 
form of Elves and Dwarves who. when 
presented with appropriate gifts (to be 
found around Middle Earth), will 
mobilise and provide the necessary 

The Levels 

The game Is presented in three dif- 
ferent levels. At the Full Map level, the 
whole of Middle Earth Is visible, giving 
a generalised view of the deployment 
of forces. Those underyour command 
as flashing blue dots. Sauron 's forces 
as red dots, and those that are un- 
committed as green dots. As with 
most Apple II GS games, control is 
achieved by using the mouse and 
activating various Icons on the 
screen. At the Full Map level, you are 
presented with four Icons. 

The Eye allows you to look Into 
Galadrtel's mirror, the enchanted 
pool found in the kingdom of Lorien. 
The resultant window Informs you of 
friendly and evil force activities. 

The Scroll Icon allows you to save 
the game on the current game disk 
(disk 2). Unfortunately, you are al- 
lowed to save only one game on the 
disk, so If you require backup, you 

will have to copy the complete disk. 

The Hourglass Icon changes the 
perceived time scale of the game into 
one of three states: Normal. Hasty 
and Very Hasty. Although Very Hasty 
Is useful in the early stages of the 
game, later on a more sedate time 
scale will be necessary. 

The Magnifying glass provides a 
very quick way of examining any part 
of Middle Earth. Just click on the 
icon, then move the resulting magni- 
fying glass pointer to any point on the 
map you wish to examine. Using this 
option magnifies the Map of the se- 
lected area, bringing you to the Cam- 
paign level. 

The Campaign level gives you a 
detailed view of the selectee! area 
which can be scrolled in all four direc- 
tions by using the mouse. At this 
level, you are presented with terrain 
features such as towns, hills and riv- 
ers. Individuals and groups are repre- 
sented by small figures, the figure 
being the character commanding that 
party. Forces are shown as a shield, 
the shield design indicating the type, 
such as a spear for light infantry or a 
scimitar for Corsairs. A Hashing 
shield indicates readiness of the force 
to accept commands. As In the Full 
Map. a scries of control icons line the 
right hand side of the map. 

The Eye icon at the campaign level 
gives you status information on the 
selected character or force. 

The Map icon takes you back to the 
Full Map level. 

The Hourglass is the same as that 
described earlier. 

The Arrow Icon allows movement 
commands to be Issued to forces or 

The Magnifying glass, as In the 
previous case allows closer examina- 
tion of a section of the map. SelecUon 
of this option takes you to the Anima- 
Uon level. 

At this level, all characters or forces 

are visible as animated characters on 
the screen. Although small groups 
are accurately represented, large 
forces such as cavalry, are repre- 
sented by a small number of horse- 
men. Clicking on any character will 
tell you who they are and what they 
are doing. 

As In the previous screens, a series 
of control Icons are available. The E*e 
and Map perform essentially the 
same functions as before, except that 
the Map takes you back to the Cam- 
paign level. 

Tne Provisions icon enables any one 
of the displayed characters to put 
down, collect or use an object. 

The Game 

As described earlier, the primary 
objective of the game is to take the 
One Ring to Mt.Doom in Mordor. 
Scattered across Middle Eart h are 
forces which can potentially be your 
ally or form formidable opponents. 
Using the Icons for control (at the 
campaign level), you can manipulate 
the Fellowship to travel in directions 
which enable you to avoid potential 
problems. Unfortunately, although 
Nazguls and Ores are clearly visible 
on the Map. other creatures, such as 
giant spiders, wolves and wights can 
attack at any time, making travel 
something of an ordeal. During your 
travels, however, you can occasion- 
ally encounter strangers who may 
Impart some Item of Information to 
you, which can be of significant bene 
fit. Such encounters at the campaign 
level offers you the chance to go to the 
animation level to watch the meeting, 
or simply continue on. Ifyou are given 
a clue as to where an item of interest 
can be found, you have to travel at the 
animation level in order to actually 
see and collect said Item. At the 
campaign level you cannot find or 
manipulate an object. 

Encounters with opponents will 
lead to combat. At the animation 
level, you are given a degree of control 
over your characters. By clicking In 
boxes within the combat window, you 
can control Individuals to charge, 
engage, withdraw or retreat. The de- 
fault selection Is engage. The combat 
window will also give Indications of 
force strength (if a large group Is 
engaged in combat) or some measure 
of health of the Individual character 
(black for healthy, red for wounded, 
grey for dead). Ifyou decide to Ignore 
the battle. It will take place anyway, 
and the subsequent result will be 

During the later stages of the game. 
Sauron will Inevitably mobilise his 
forces. If you did not manage to get 
any friendly forces on your side (by 
finding objects and presenting them 
to the appropriate group), you cannot 
command most of the friendly groups 
until Sauron starts marching. Only 
then will all the forces obey your 
commands. At this point all friendly 
forces, as well as your opponents 

December 1989 



allies become visible on the map. 
Then a mad scramble will be neces- 
sary lo ensure lhal all your forces arc 
positioned correctly for the forthcom- 
ing war. You have lo meanwhile en- 
sure that the rlngbeaner avoids com 
bat or remains heavily protected in 
order to reach the mountain. 

As a degree of randomness has been 
built Into the program, the came 
never really repeats Itself ana any 
sequence of events may not have the 
same results. 

As for the war, the odds are always 
in Sauron's favour. A few thousand 
men are no match for tens of thou- 
sands of Ores. Only tactical skill will 
keep your men alive. 


On the whole, this game has been 
well written, although some aspects 
of the game (such as searching for 
objects in the animation level) could 
become irritating. 

War in Middle Earth is more of a 
strategy type than a true adventure, 
and the complexity is such that It is 
unlikely to be completed easily. 


The game was run on a computer 
which has a Transwarp GS Installed 
and as a result, the movement of the 
characters and screen was relatively 
smooth. Running the GS at the nor- 
mal 'Fast' mode caused the screen 
motion to be rather Jerky. Although 
the game is playable withou t an accel- 
erator, it performs better with one 

The supplied disks are not copy 
protected, runs using GS/OS V4.0. 
and starts from the Finder. Consider- 
ing the amount of disk access it has to 
perform, significant benefit could be 
gained by Installing Ihe game on a 
hard disk. The IIGS version req's 
768K. of memory 

John Kishimoto * 

Finder, EasyDrive and ProSel, 
a quick comparison 


Product ; War in Middle Earth 
Publisher: Electronic Arts 
Available from : 

Virgin Mastertronic 

(Melbourne House) 

2-4 Vernon Yard 

Portobello Road 

London W11 2DX 
Price: £24.99 

Value : *** 

Performance : 444 

Documentation ; <4< 


I personally am a Finder fan. I in- 
tend to make my remarks balanced, 
but I AM saying this up front. 


I am not a novice. 1 have had a //gs 
for a little over a year now, and have 
gone from the base 256k CPU and a 
pair of third party 5.25 drives to a full 
bore 3.25 meg machine with 
RamKeeper, 62meg SCSI Hard Drive, 
2400 baud modem, color printer, and 
a set of GEN ewe-ine Apple disk 
drives. I spend a lot of time (and 
money) on the on-line services and 
large numbers of local BBSs through 
PC Pursuit. I spend a lot of time 
reading and studying publications 
and texts about Apple //s. 

I recently spent some time setting 
up ProSel 1 6 for a friend of mine, who 
is a novice and simply did not have 
Ume lo do it himself. While I had 
owned ProSel 8 for some time, I had 
never used it as a program launcher. 
As previously stated. I have a prefer- 
ence for Finder, i was quite familiar 
with the ProSel utilities, but was put 
In the position of having to learn the 
ProSel launching system In a matter 
of days. Walker Archer of Quality 
Computers was kind enough to send 
mc a copy of EasyDrive 1.5 for my 
personal evaluation. (He had no idea 
I would be writing this, nor did I at the 
Ume.) I was already quite familiar with 
Finder, but I had to come to MAUG for 
help with ProSel 16, and colnciden- 
taUy, while I was In the middle of 
workingwlth this. EasyDrive came in 
the mail.which leads to the first 
comparison statement 

I spent about a week bending ProSel 
tomywill.Thatis, 4-6 hours a day for 
5 days and 8-10 hours a day for the 
last two were spent on making ProSel 
do what I wanted it to do. What 1 
wanted It to do was not anything that 
it is not intended to do. I have a fairly 
complex system, with two HD parti- 
tions and a battery backed KOM disk 
of 1.5 meg containing about a dozen 
productivity programs, half a dozen 
utility programs, a couple of telecom- 
munications packages and a number 
of games (some of which present their 
OWN problems as far as compatibility 
with GS/OS etc), which are pretty 
evenly divided between P8 and P16. 
What I wanted to do was to be able 
to quickly and easily get into ANY of 
these programs from one main 
screen, without having to think about 
what I was doing in (he process. Actu- 
ally, this is my wife's computer, and I 
wanted to set it up so that she could 
SEE. from looking at the screen, what 
to do. without having to wonder, or 
come and ask me. It took me those 

seven hard days to do it with ProSel. 
It took me three hours to do it with 

What's the difference? ProSel is 
COMPLEX. It offers a LOT more flexi- 
bility and power than EasyDrive. but 
complexity is the price you pay. And 
by offerlngyou many different ways of 
doing things, and many opportunities 
to custom tailor things, it TEMPTS 
you to do (hat. EasyDrive is SIMPLE. 
This is not to say that it is not power- 
ful also, it is. but It is specifically 
designed to be easy to use and uncon- 
fusing to the new user. (In fact, it may 
be more confusing to the EXPERI- 
ENCED user, due to its somewhat 
unconventional interface, more on 
that later.) 

With both EasyDrive and ProSel. 
you can let the program do the setting 
up of the pathnames to launch the 
programs. EZs EasyAdd and ProSels 
Automatic Mode will both present you 
with a list of EXECable programs on a 
volume and allow you to choose which 
one you want, and what name you 
want for it. without your having to 
understand anything about pa- 
thnames or anything else. With EZ. 
you are able to "add" a menu, and 
"add" applications onto that menu. 
Your choices are limited to the name 
you give each menu, and the name 
you give the application, and the 
number of characters allowed is not 
real large. ProSel allows you to name 
things whatever you want, but gives 
you more characters to do it with and 
allows the use of Mousetext, reverse 
video, "active" and "inactive" menu 
entries, etc... And learning how to use 
all these bells and whistles is what 
took me so long. ProSel. instead of 
"menus" has "screens" which serve 
the same purpose. I ran into some 
minor but Ume consuming problems 
setting up screens also. I will not 
detail that here, there Is no reason to 
believe YOU will run into the same 
exact misconceptions I did. but 1 will 
say that the documentation provided, 
while extremely rich in detail, can be 
somewhat confusing and obtuse on 
some points. The only point of confu - 
sion I ran into on EasyDrive was that 
the fact that the easiest way to get 
back to the Main Menu (the Menu of 
menus. In my setup) is not clearly 
spelled out in the docs. So I will give it 
to you here. To get back to the main 
menu, "add" a menu to whatever 
menu you are working on and name it 

ProSel. both versions, contains 
utilities to handle any file activities 
you might want to do (and many that 
you won't), a disk optimlser, a bad 
block fixer, a backup and restore 
function, and a zillion other (NOT by 

18 @ 


December 1989 

actual count) little goodies that 
SOMEONE (quite possibly you) will 
find very useful. EaaydriYe docs not 
contain a bad block fixer, but It does 
have the optimlser. backup and re- 
store, file activities tools, and a little 
goodie of It's own called "Status" that 
telbyou the degree to which yourdisk 
files are fragmented and makes a 
recommendation as to whether the 
disk needs to be optimized. (VERY 

EasyDrive also Includes a set of 
installation scripts that will install 
MANY of the major programs to your 
Hard Drive for you. This can be EX- 
TREMELY useful to the new HU 
owner, especially one who is not sure 
of himself. (Of course, you have to 
have the programs in order to install 
them.) It will aiso Install the operating 
systems for you. If It Is pre-GS/OS. 
(more on THAT later too) 

You will notice that I have not talked 
about Finder yet. Finder will do any- 
thing that ProSel or EasyDrive will do 
in terms of file activities and program 
launching. (Efficient program 
launching under Finder is easy if you 
know the trick, but that is too in- 
volved to fit In this post, so I will be 
doing another one on that topic.) 
Finder Is AT LEAST as complicated as 
ProSel in terms of learning how to set 
it up for most efficient use, and about 
as easy to use as EZ when you take It 
out of the box, AND it's pretty. It 
DOES NOT contain all those useful 
utilities. But It will run all the utilities 
from ProSel 8 as stand alone applica 
Uons. and it will run ProSel 16 or 
EasyDrive and let you use their built 
In utilities. Finder Is grossly slow in 
comparison to ProSel and EasyDrive 
las this is written. GS/OS 5.0 has 
been announced, and I have seen a 
Beta copy, and It Is a LOT faster), 
primarily because It uses the graphi- 
cal interface and all that screen re- 
drawing takes TIME. Finder has also 
been accused of being very buggy. 
Tills turns out not to be the case. (1 
had one person, and he knows who he 
Is. tell me that It was IMPOSSIBLE to 
make ProSel crash. ..maybe for him. 
but I can do it, and I did. several 
Umes.) Finder has either two bugs, or 
one bug with two faces, that will cause 
it to hang up when you try to do 
something on the desktop after re- 
turning from certain non specific 

This bug appears rarely, and once 
you become familiar with It. Is only a 
minor aggravation. It CANNOT, be- 
cause It nappens on the desk top. 
trash any data or flies you may be 
working with. Many programs have 
various problems that will cause 
them to crash for no apparent reason. 
tAppleworks GS and Paintworks Gold 
come to mind.) And because they use 
the same visual Interface as the 
Finder. I believe that Finder is often 
blamed for these crashes when it 
shouldn't be. 

.. Nuffsald. 


All three of these programs are suit- 
able for use with a Hard Drive. They 
will organize and maintain your flies 
to the limits of your abilities. (The 
better YOU are. the better THEY are.) 
ProSel is very much the tool for the 
power user, (and the power user 
wanna-be). While It Is complex to 
learn and use properly for the new 
user. It wl II almost certainly present 
the experienced user with a way to do 
what he wants to do. no matter how 
bizzare. EasyDrive is the perfect tool 
for the new user. It Is almost self 
explanatory. Its user interface Is a 
little atypical, but it is very friendly, 
(atypical =• one mouse click Is equlva- 
lenttoareturn, a double click Is equal 
to an escape, and escape tabs be- 
tween menus, while TAB tabs be- 
tween columns, takes a few minutes 
to get used to. but the prompts are 
right there on the screen, and after 
doing it for 10 minutes it becomes 
perfectly EZ). This does NOT mean 
that It is something you will not want 
to use as you become more proflclen t. 
EasyDrive Is a powerful program In Its 
own right, and will be right at home in 
my system for some time to come. 
Finder Is FREE. It comes with the GS. 
(you all knew that. I know) Finder 
uses the "standard" Apple Interface, 
and you don't have to learn three or 
four different sets of conventions (as 
long as you don't have any Prodos 8 
programs). What is not immediately 
obvious is that Finder Is at least as 
powerful as either of the other pro- 
grams, and very flexible In It's own 
right. It is also as difficult to learn how 
to use WELL as ProSel. 

As fond as I am of Finder, and as 
Impressed as I am with ProSel 16. If I 
had to make a recommendation to a 
new user with a Hard Drive. I think I 
would have to say EasyDrive. It will 
get you up and running all your pro- 
grams FAST, you will understand it 
easily, and It will serve you well as you 
leam more. And you should bear In 
mind something that I had not men 
Honed yet- EasyDrive Is a pre-GS/OS 
Prodos 8 program, comparable to 
Prosel 8. While it Is compaUble with 
GS/OS. it does not RUNGS/OS. (yes. 
you can run all your programs, in- 
cluding Apple-works GS. In fact, 
AWGS works Just FINE under 3.2 for 
the limited time I tried It. And you can 
always LAUNCH GS/OS if you need 
to.) It Is fair to say that EasyDrtve is a 
generation behind the two programs I 
Just compared it with. Not to worry, 
the full 16 bit EasyDrtve 2.0 Is com- 
ing. It will be released sometime be- 
tween the end of summer and Christ- 
mas. There will be a lot of changes, a 
lot of improvements, or so I am told. 
And I am assured by Walker Archer 
that the primary criterion laid out In 
the name of the program will be ad- 
hered to. II will continue to be EASY. 

Anon - Found on CompuServe * 



APPLEWORKS v1 .3 £99.95* 

APPLEWORKS v2.1 £149.95* 

APPLEWRITER ]( £49.95* 

ART LIBRARY 1 £9.95* 

ART LIBRARY 2 £9,95* 


COPY II+ v8.4 (5.25") £24.95 


KERMIT (ProDOS) £4.00* 

LET'S MAKE greetings caros £9.95* 

LET'S MAKE signs a banners £9.95" 


NEVADA EDIT (CP/M) £39.95* 



NEVADA PILOT (CP/M) £39.95* 

pIusWORKS ii £29.95* 

PRINT MAGIC 5.26* £29.95 

PUBLISH-ITIv! £69.95* 






THE LAST ONE {CP/m o< DOS) £49.95* 



11+ 80-COLUMN SWITCHBOX £9.95* 

//e ENHANCEMENT KIT £39.95* 

CS-300 JOYSTICK £19.95* 

CS-600 JOYSTICK £29.95* 

CS-808 JOYSTICK £24.95* 


DOS (3 3) USER'S MANUAL £7.00* 


MOUSE MAT (9.25x6.5*) E3.95' 

PASTEL PAPER PACK (100) £4.95* 

RS-232 D-25 M/F MINITESTER £9.95* 
HS-232 D-25 M/F surge protector £4.95* 


Z-80 CARO £24.95 



MGA SoftCat 


December 1989 


m 19 

Build Your Own Vanilla 
SCSI Tape Backup System 

by Dr. Kenneth Buchholz 

Box 430 RD#4, Washington N J 07882 

Copyright 1989 

Make Mine Vanilla (Introduction) 

Last autumn. I assembled my own 
•vanilla" SCSI haid drive subsystem 
using the Seagate ST277N drive, the 
Tulin AppIeHive case, and CMS SCSI 
Interface Card and saved about $250 
by 'building my own". Since my first 
online article on the assembly ap- 
peared last year, thousands of others 
have followed suit and assembled 
their own SCSI hard drive, and the 
popularity of these homebrew hard 
drives Is illustrated by the wealth of 
online and magazine articles which 
have followed. 

During the following months of 
helping others assemble their own 
hard drive, giving tutorial presenta- 
tions before Apple user groups where 
members would assemble their own 
hard drive during the presentation, 
and writing follow up articles for on- 
line services, my own BBS. magazines 
and newsletters, it became quite 
apparent to me that what we all 
needed next was an inexpensive SCSI 
tape backup system. Acquiring and 
assembling the hardware was the 
easiest part - find the software needed 
to format, backup and restore was the 
difficult part since Apple, nor anyone 
else, has released either drivers for a 
SCSI tape system or tape backup 
software. Fortunately for me - and 
you - a friend of mine was willing and 
able to write the necessary software - 
HDTAPE - which Is now available at a 
shareware price. 

Tim Grams, author of HDFORMAT 
(the very popular SCSI hard drive 
formatting software). Is the author of 
HDTAPE. (If you are already famllar 
with HDFORMAT or any of Tim's 
other software products, you already 
appreciate the quality of his work!) 

HDTAPE Is NOT a tape driver; 
rather, it is a ProDOS-8 application 
which allows you to fonnat, backup to 
and restore from tape. As a ProDOS 
8appllcaUon. the version of HDTAPE 
described here Is specific for the Apple 
//gs. A GS/OS version as well as a 
version for the Apple //e are planned, 
and current owners of HDTAPE will 
be notified of the availability of slgnlfl - 
cant upgrades. HDTAPE is available 
by direct order from Tim. and order- 
ing informaUon follows this article. 
If you're a SCSI hard drive owner 

who has quickly tired of backing up 
your drive to floppy disk, read on: I 
will lead you through the purchase of 
the hardware, its assembly and use. 
And before you say "I can't build 
anything' let me say that If you can 
use a screwdriver, you CAN build 
your own SCSI tape backup system 
its THAT easy! Why A Duck? (Why a 
SCSI Tape Backup System?) Do you 
find yourself asking. "Why should I 
invest In a tape backup system when 
3.5" disks will do?" There are three 
reasons which come to mind In- 

(1) Using 3.5" disks, you must 
remain glued to the chair In front of 
your system, swapping disks - lots of 
disks - and for a 32 meg volume this 
can take well over one hour. Using a 
tape system, you start It up. wander 
off and do other things while the sys- 
tem Is backing itself up. and return 
when Its done. 

(2) The tape system 111 describe 
here uses DC20O0 tapes, each of 
which holds 40 megs, equivalent to 50 
3.5" disks. Since the DC20OO tapes 
(which are also used In many of the 
MS-DOS systems and are therefore 
readily available) can be purchased 
for as low as $ 1 5 each, tape backup Is 
more economical than disk backup. 

(3) And finally, since the DC2000 
tape Is roughly the size of an audio 
cassette. It requires a lot less storage 
space than do 50 3.5" disks. 

Lincoln Logs [The Hardware) 

The hardware needed for this proj- 
ect is listed below. I provide informa 
tlon on vendors and approximate 
prices (based on what I paid In March 
1989) at the end of this article. 

1 - 3M brand MCD-40 DM/SCSI 
tape unit 

1 - Tulin AppIeHive case with 30 
watt power supply & fan; Includes all 
Internal cabling; the optional open 
face plate is highly recommended 

1 - Apple SCSI Interface Card (ROM 
version C) 

1 - SCSI Interface Cable terminat- 
ing in a DB-25 pin connector on one 
end and Centronics-like 50-pin con- 
nector on the other end 

1 - Standard Power Cord (as used 
on the Apple // line) 

1 - DC20O0 40 meg (250*) SCSI tape 

1 - HDTAPE (Formatting. Backup & 

Restore Software) 

(The Assembly) 

For the Initial assembly and con- 
nection, I'm going to provide dlrec- 
tlons assuming that your SCSI tape 
backup system will be operating on a 
seperate Apple SCSI Interface card 
from your hard drive. 

Operation on the same SCSI chain 
(i.e.. Interface Card) as your hard 
drive requires a few extra steps, which 
will also be explained. 

1. If your tape unit arrived with the 
attachment brackets already in- 
stalled, skip down to Step 3. 

2. Attach the brackets to either side 
of the tape unit using the 4 screws 
supplied. When facing the tape unit's 
front panel, the tape eJecUon button 
should be below die tape Insertion 

3. If you purchased the opUonal 
open face plate from Tulin. skip to 
Step 4: If not. you will need to cut a 
hole in the face plate: Using a sabre 
saw with sheet metal blade, cut a 
rectangular hole In the AppIeHive face 
plate measuring 4.25" wide and 1.5" 
high. The lower left corner of this hole 
should be 1" from the left edge and 
0.25" up from the bottom of the face 
plate (on the bottom half of the face 
plate when facing the AppIeHive). 
When cutting this hole, be sure to 
make the cut far away from the tape 
unit itself - preferrably In another 
room - to keep metal shavings from 
coming In contact with the drive and 
case. Use a metal file to round the cut 
edges smooth. 

4. With one hand, hold the tape 

unit so that its underside Is facing UP. 

(The tape's eject button Is on the 

bottom front of the unit.) With your 

other hand, grab the distal end of the 

fiat. 50-wlre ribbon cable coming 

from the connectors on the back plate 

of the case and extend the cable so 

that It Is NOT twisted. Insert the 

connector at the end of this cable into 

the 50-pin connector at the back of 

the tape unit. Be careful to insert this 

connector properly so that no pins are 

bent, broken or sUcklng out. When 

you press the connector into the back 

of the tape unit, the latches on either 

side of the tape unit's connector 

should lock the cable in place. Once 

this connecUon has been secured. 

rotate the tape unit so that It Is right 

side UP. resulUng In the 50-pln cable 

having a 180 degree twist in It 

5. Connect the 4-prong power line 
connector from the power supply unit 
in the case to the tape unit. Note that 
this power connector is D-shaped. 
and can only be inserted Into the tape 
unit's power plug receptor one way 

(the correct way!). 

6. Gently set the tape unit onto the 
base plate of the case. Hold securely 
to the case base plate and turn the 
entire assembly upside down while 


a m 


December 1989 

continuing to hold the tape unit firmly 
against the base plate. Using the 4 
flathead screws provided with the 
case, secure the tape unit to the bot- 
tom plate by inserting the screws 
through the holes in the bottom plate 
and Into the bottom of the brackets on 
cither side of the tape unit. Tighten 
securely. Turn the assembly right 
side UP. 

7. Check that the settings of the DIP 
switch bank (on left side of drive when 
facing drive from the front) are prop- 
erly set (Dlpsl-6 should be towards 
the bottom of the drive, 7-8 towards 
the top of the drive). The SCSI ID of 
the tape unit should be LOWER than 
that of your SCSI hard drive: setting 
the tape unit ID to Is a safe bet since 
most commercial hard drives are 
shipped with SCSI ID = 6. 

8. Install the case cover and face 
plate, and fasten securely using the 
screws supplied. Attach the power 
cord and SCSI Interface cable to the 
connectors on the back of the case, 
but do not yet plug the power cable 
Into a wall outlet. 

9. Install the Apple SCSI Interface 
Card into your Apple as per the 
manufacturer's directions. 

10. Attach the SCSI Interface Cable 
from the tape unit to the Apple SCSI 
connector on the back of your com- 

1 1 . Plug the tape power cord Into a 
wall socket and turn the tape unit ON. 

12. Turn your computer and hard 
drive ON. and boot the HDTAPE disk. 
Follow the instructions below for us- 
ing HDTAPE. 

Solo Plight (Using The Tape System 
On A Single SCSI Chain) 

If you will be chaining your tape 
backup system off your existing SCSI 
hard drive, you will need to (1) make 
sure that the SCSI tape backup sys 
tern Is the last device In the chain and 
(2) remove the terminator packs from 
the hard drive. 

To remove the terminators from 
your hard drive, open your hard drive 
case and remove the hard drive unit 
itself. Locate the terminator packs 
(usually 2-3 small, thin yellow units 
which vaguely resemble caterpillars 
on the underside (circuit board) of the 
hard drive) by gently pulling them off. 
Be careful not to bend or break any of 
their pins. 

Also note how they are attached to 
the drive (which side Is "up") so that 

Eou can properly reinsert them at a 
iter date if necessary. 
If you remove all terminators for all 
drives. Including the tape drive, you 
can chain or remove drives at will, 
providing you attach an Apple SCSI 
Terminator to the daisy chain port of 
the last drive on the chain. This will 
require that you purchase an Apple 
SCSI Terminator at addlUonaJ cost. 
After reassembling your hard drive, 
connect the SCSI Interface Cable 
from your tape backup system to one 
of the connectors on the back of your 

SCSI hard drive. You are now ready to 
boot HDTAPE and begin your backup. 

Its Soft Where? (Using HDTAPE) 

Wlthyour computer, hard drive and 
tape backup systems ON, boot the 
HDTAPE disk. After the program 
boots and the credits screen Is dis- 
played (indicating the version of 
HDTAPE you're using). HDTAPE 
checks for the presence of an Apple 
SCSI Interface Card and tape drive, 
and then Instructs you to Insert a 
tape. When you receive this instruc- 
tion, Insert a brand new. unformatted 

Your tape drive will perform about 
30 seconds worth or tape access. 
During this time. It Is checking the 
tape. It will determine that the tape 
needs to be formatted and will issue a 
message indicating this. When you 
see the menu line 

OsBackup IsRestore 2=Fonnat 
3-DIagnostics Q=Qult 

select 2 to format the new tape. 
Formatting takes approximately 38- 
40 minutes, so go grab an Iced tea and 
watch a rerun of Taxi. 

When Taxi Is over , so Is your format- 
ting of the tape. The menu line Is 
again displayed and you're all set to 
begin backing up your hard drive. 
Fortunately you will only format each 
tape you use once and never again, so 
you may want to take the time to 
format all your tapes now and get that 
out of the way for good. 

HDTAPE is a ProDOS-8 application 
using the old Slot and Drive designa- 
tions for the volume to backup. To 
backup a volume, select from the 
menu line. HDTAPE responds with 
questions on which Slot and then 
which Drive you wish to backup. If 
you have a 60 meg hard drive at- 
tached to slot 6 and wish to backup 
the first volume, select Slot 6 Drive 1 ; 
to backup the second volume In that 
hard drive, select Slot 6 Drive 2. 

Three hexideclmal numbers are 
displayed during the backup process: 
the total number of ProDOS blocks 
that will be backed up. the number of 
blocks read from the volume, and the 
number of blocks written to the tape. 
The number of blocks written to the 
tape will eventually go higher than the 
number of blocks read from the vol- 
ume being backed up due to buffering 
and differences In the block sizes of 
the two devices (hard drive and tape 
drive): this Is of no Importance to the 
backup process itself, so don't be 
alarmed! In general, each megabyte 
being backed up takes about 2-2.5 
minutes, so estimate how long the 
entire backup process will take based 
upon the size of the volume being 
backed up, and go have some fun 
while the backup occurs. Note that 
if you wish to cancel a backup or 
restoration, you can press ESCAPE to 
return to HOTAPE's main menu - but 
beware that the tape (If backing up) or 




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hard drive (If restoring) will contain 
incomplete data. When the backup Is 
done, select Q from the menu line and 
HDTAPE will rewind the tape for 
quick mounting the next time that 
tape Is used. After rewinding, 
HDTAPE will ask you If you wish to 
either quit the program or process 
another tape. 

Restoringa backup from tape Is Just 
as easy as backing up to tape. Select 
1 from the menu fine to restore, and 
tell HDTAPE which Slot and Drive you 
wish to restore to - the rest la auto- 
matic. And yes. It is THAT easy! 

Slurpics (Potential Problems) 

There are a variety of cases that can 
be used Instead of the Tulln Apple- 
Hlvc. If you purchase a case with an 
"open" front plate, you will not need to 
cut a rectangular hole In the front as 

December 1989 


gj, g 21 

we did with the Tulln AppleHlve case: 
the "open* front plate cases already 
have that opening. The one problem 
th at can crop up w ith any case /power 
supply/fan combination you choose 
Is magnetism. Unlike hard drives, 
tape drive units are open and not as 
well protected as hard drives are from 
magnetic fields, dust and other data 
goblins. Many of the power supplies 
and fans In popular hard drive cases 
emit enough magnetism to Interfer 
with the operation of the tape unit. If 
you Ilnd that your tape unit does not 
operate properly, try removing the 
case covering and carefully try using 
the system opened. If the tape unit 
works under these conditions, 
chances are that enough magnetism 
Is being created when you close up the 
case to interfer with the tape unit's 

E=rformance. if this is true, try this 
ome remedy: cut a piece of card- 
board box to make a "lid with sides" 
which can stand over the tape drive 
and along either side of the tape drive 
for Its length. (I used part of the tape 
drive shipping box, which was the 
perfect size.) This "lid with sides" 
should fit so that there is sufficient 
space between It and all components 
of the tape drive Itself. Completely 
encase this cover with aluminum 
kitchen foil, taping all edges so that 
the foil edges can not unravel and 
touch any of the tape drive compo- 
nents. Set this aluminum-covered 
cardboard lid over the tape drive so 
that is surrounds the tape drive and 
provides a physical barrier between 
the tape drive and the power supply 
and fan. You may also want to place 
a sheet of plastic film between the 
bottom of the tape unit and the case (I 
used a plastic page protector trimmed 
to the size of the tape unit's footprint). 
Also check that all cable connections 
are secure. Another problem which 
ocasslonally occurs is a bad tape. 
Just like disks, you can ocasslonally 

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receive a bad tape. If your tape unit 
seems to function properly but you 
receive an error during the format 
process, try another new tape or two 
- you may simply have a bad tape (or 
two If its your unlucky day). Finally. 
note that tapes can wear out after 
prolonged use. To help extend the life 
of your tapes, always store them In a 
clean, out-of-lhe-way place away 
from magnetic fields. 

"I Love Tou" Ac Other Lies (Warran- 
ties & Promises) 

One of the major concerns for all do- 
it-yourself projects is the warranty. 
One of the first questions posed to me 
when I built my vanilla SCSI hard 
drive is. "What about a warranty?" If 
you purchase a new drive, you should 
receive the manufacturer's warranty • 
which usually runs about one year. 
This Is the same as Is usually given on 
commercially-assembled tape 
backup systems. Check with the 
vendor of the case /power supply on 
their warranty: Tulln offers a 6- 
month warranty on the AppleHlve 
case.Apple offers their standard, 
chintzy 90-day warranty on the SCSI 
Interface Card. In general, with the 
possible exception of a shorter war- 
ran ty on the case & power supply, the 
warranty on the tape unit Itself and 
the Apple SCSI Interface Card are the 
same as If you purchased a commer- 
cial tape backup system. The big 
difference in assembling your own 
system, of course, is price. 

The Bottom Line (Price) 

I purchase my brand new 3M tape 
unit for $299. The Tulln AppleHlve 
case with 30 watt power supply is 
$ 1 19. Tlie Apple SCSI Interface Card 
can be purchased mail order for 
about $100. the SCSI Interface Cable 
and power cord together will cost you 
another $30 or so. and HDTAPE $50. 
The bottom line comes to around 
$600. excluding tapes. (If you already 
have a SCSI hard drive with Apple 
SCSI Interface Card, your tape 
backup system can run less than 
$500 complete.) Scouring the local 
computer faires and Computer Shop- 
per, you might be able to save $50 on 
a case with power supply, and If you 
make your own SCSI Interface Cable, 
you can save another $20 or so. 
Considering that Apple sells their 
similar SCSI Tape Backup System for 
the Mac. sans Apple SCSI Interface 
Card, for $1499 list* $600 doesn't 
seem that expensive to begin with! If 
you are considering assembling your 
own hard drive AND tape unit simul- 
taneously, you can save a few dollars 
by using the Tulln AppleHlve case 
since this case will hold both one half- 
height hard drive and the 3M tape 
unit. But since the AppleHlve comes 
In two flavours - with a 30 watts power 
supply or with a 60 watts power sup- 
ply - wh ich do you select? Tne Seagate 
ST277N 60 meg SCSI hard drive 
draws a maximum of approximately 

12.5 watts (when accessing the drive) 
and the 3M tape unit draws a maxi- 
mum of 20 watts when moving the 
tape (but only 9 watts when In stand- 
by mode). Since the two devices are 
accessed alternately, it appears that 
the 30 watts power supply Is suffi- 
cient to power both devices. Tim Is 
using the 30 watts version to power 
both his Seagate ST277N 60 meg 
drive and 3M tape unit and reports no 
problems thus far (1 have my vanilla 
tape system in a seperate case since I 
move it between two Apple //gs 
units), but we both suggest that the 
60 watts AppleHlve be considered just 

to be safe. 

The Cast Of Player* (The Vendors) 
HardTlmes (1070 Commercial St. 
San Jose CA 951 12; 408-452-5700) 
sells the 3M tape units for $299. while 
their supply lasts. 

Tulln Corp- (2393 Qume Dr.. San 
Jose CA 95131; 408-432-9025) sells 
the 30 watts AppleHlve for $1 19 and 
a 60 watts AppleHlve for $ 1 69, power 
cords for $4. $20 for the SCSI Inter- 
face Cable. 

Mytech Electronics (300 Breesport, 
San Antonio TX 78216 800-527- 
7435) is a good source for cables & 
other electronic components (Includ- 
ing all you will need to make your own 
SCSI Interface Cable). 

Diskette ConnecUon (272 Quigley 
Blvd.. New Castle DE 19720; 800 
451-1849; & other locaUons around 
the US) is an excellent source of 3M 
DC2000 tapes for $1 5 each. Quick 
reliable service & best prices! 

Tim Grams (P.O. Box 462283. Gar- 
land TX 75046) provides HDTAPE for 
$50. When ordering, specify 
HDTAPE. computer type being used, 
and 3.5 or 5.25 disk. Checks or 
money orders (made payable to Tim) 
are accepted. 

The Free Clinic (Sources of Informa- 
tion & Help) 

The Washington Towne Crier BBS 
(1-201-689-3649; 8 N 1:300/1200/ 
2400 bauds) is a free, public-access 
BBS specializing in the Apple // 
family of computers. WTC has exten- 
sive libraries of public domain and 
shareware SCSI utility software and 
information files. The author can also 
be reached at WTC via private 
EasyMail (user #1) or the public fo 
Kenneth Buchholz • 

Reach Put ft Touch Someone 

(Contacting the Author) 

The author may be contacted elec- 
tronically via the following services: 

Service: ID: 

AppleLink DR. KEN 

CompuServe 75076.412 

Dr. Kenneth Buchholz. 
Box 430 RD#4. 
NJ 07882 




December 1989 

Apple II GS/OS 

Transcript of the "Apple II GS/OS 5.0" Event Apple Audi- 
torium, AppleLink Personal Edition. Tuesday. May 16. 10 
p.m. EST Host: Cheryl Kempton Guests: Brian Loucks. 
Jim Mensrh and AFL TracyP 

AppleLink Good Evening and welcome to another 

event in the Apple Auditorium that intro- 
duces you to the people behind the prod- 
ucts. Tonight were pleased to welcome 
Brian Loucks and Jim Mensch. of the 
Apple II Product Management team, 
ready to discuss the new Apple IIGS/OS 
5.0. recently Introduced at AppleFest. 
Also with us tonight Is AFL TracyP. Tracy 
Poe, Forum Leader of the Apple II Hard- 
ware Forum, and David Sugar. IAFL 
Dyfet), leader of the Apple II Development 

Ine Apple (@J Auditorium Is one of four 
areas for "big-name" events on Ap- 
pleLink. Ine large capacity room allows 
you to attend the festivities with hun- 
dreds of other AppleLink members. 
Your host tonight is Cheryl Kempton. 
(CherylKS), special projects coordinator 
for the Apple Community. 

CherylK5 Good Evening and welcome again to the 

Apple Auditorium. Tonight we have with 
us Brian , Jim and Tracy to tell you a little 
more about their specialties. Before we 
start with quesUons. Brian would you 
like to Introduce yourself and tell us a 
little about what you do at Apple? 

Loucks OK. I'm a product manager In CPU prod- 

uct marketing. IVe also been helping roll 
out SSW 5.0 for the GS. 

CherylK5 Thanks Brian . We have a question from 

from Tim 

Question I was VERY Impressed with 5.0 at Afest. 

however does this reflect on the quality of 
the original code used in 4.0? ::ducklng:: 

JimMensch The system disk 5.0 code Is much faster 

for many reasons. First, and foremost is 
memory considerations... system disk 
4.0 Is aimed at users who have 512K of 
RAM primarily so everything had to work 
well in 512K. In 5.0 we decided that 
enough people had more memoiy so we 
started taking more advantage of It. 
This means that if you have a 1 meg 
system you will get a pretty nice perform- 
ance increase but if you have 512K many 
of the speed Improvements will not be 
loaded on your machine. 

AFL TracyP Jim. does that mean that a user with less 
than 512K won't get the performance 
advantages of 5.0? 

JimMensch Tracy, that does mean that a 512k user 
will get less of an increase. But. 512K 
users will still see better performance 

CherylK5 Jim. maybe you can take this question 

from A Gibber F on SCSI drivers... 

Question Well I would like to congratulate you on a 

super Job with 5.O.... My question is 
about the SCSI drivers... What was im- 
plemented differently in 5.0 vs 4.0? 

JimMensch OK. The main difference is 4.0 and 5-0 for 
SCSI is eveiything! in 4.0 we had what 
was an interim SCSI manager. It was not 
the whole design as our group saw it. For 

5.0 we wrote a whole new SCSI manager 
that did not use the cards firmware at all. 
and was much more effective. The net 
efTect of the rewrite was the 5 times speed 
increase seen at Applcfest 

CherylK5 Tim has another question for Brian 

Question Is Apple still committed to John Sculley*s 

12 18 month CPU committment given at 
Afest-SF last fall? That would place a CPU 
release at either Sept or May next year 
and we assume It's not a //c++ 

Loucks Sorry.... We can't comment on unan- 

nounced products... wc may or may not 
be working on. Sorry again. 

AFL TracyP The boss can get away with it.. .lesser 
mortals can't! 

CherylK5 And BradleyLl has a different question 

for Jim... 

Question How true are the Rumors that CSOS 

makes the GS have the speed of MAC + 
and how is this possible given the dlifer- 
encea in CPU speed and Data bus ? 

JimMensch Bradley, the rumors you have heard well, 

lets take it from the top. First, assuming 
the Mac+ were faster than an Apple Hgs 
then 5.0 would not speed the hardware 
up But. that Is a pretty big assumption. 
The Mac+ and Apple Hgs have completely 
different processors. And, they work In 
very different ways. The Mac plus hard- 
ware is faster at moving bytes from here 
to there and faster at general calcula- 
tions. However, the GS is very good at 
special purpose coding. By this I mean 
that as an example, the Mac plus may be 
able to multiply two numbers faster than 

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December 1989 





the GS but In specific I can multiply any 
Integer by $A0 on the GS faster. Since this 
is the case, when we wrote 5.0 software 
we took advantage of many places whe re 
the gs could run very fast and used them. 
What you get Is a GS that runs more 
efficiently, and yes. can perform some 
base operations faster than the Mac +. 
However, since Apple does not write every 
Application, and since not all routines 
can be sped up the way qulckdraw and 
the SCSI manager were, the Mac plus 
probably still has us beat overall. But, 
you should know that with 5.0 you aren't 
much off the mark in most graphic opera- 
AFLTracyP The rumors you heard were probably 
extensions of comments made at AppleF- 
cst by individuals who had seen demon- 
strations of System 5.0 with aTransWarp 
GS and Ohio Kache's Multi-Kache card 
installed... the (unsubstantiated) word is 
that it =looks= as fast as a Mac II. 
And now a question from WaitNeison on 
the manuals... 

How will 5.0 be distributed? And will it 
have a new manual? Will I want the new 

It will ship as a System Software update. 
Just like 4.O.... You'll also probably be 
able to get It through user groups... and 
online services. There is a new 
manual... Depends on how useful you 
find our SW documentation.. ..Many 
benefits are transparent.. But there arc 
new features that require the manual. 
ChcrylK5 And Robin Lynn wants to know. 

Question Does this mean it takes even longer to 

JlmMensch Nope Takes on average about the same 
time as 4.0. sometimes fastcr.somctimes 
slower but that depends on how much 
extra stuff you Install. 
CherylK5 And another from Walt on TWGS vs the 

Question 5.0 with a Transwarp GS compares favo- 

rably with the Finder on a Mac II. True? 
JlmMensch Walt, at some point the finder stops 
running and Just sits and waits for you to 
do whatever comes next. I think that you 
can safely say that in most cases the Mac 
II and 5.0 with a transwarp will be waiting 
for you... 

AFL TracyP Good practical answer, Jim 

CherylK5 Walt's got quite a few this evening, this 

one is on Genesis 
Question Have you seen the demo of the program- 

ming aid from Genesis software that cre- 
ates Menu.Buttons, etc? Any comments? 
AFLTracyP No one here has seen the demo... but I 

have listened to the pitch.. .it sounds like 
an intriguing product. It supposedly 
won't ship for several more months.. 
CherylK5 Thanks Tracy... and this question is for 

Jim from AFL TlmB 
Question I hope 5.0 is using the rev C SCSI card. 

right Jim? 
JlmMensch In fact. It requires it I believe. But. In any 
case, the firmware Is not used so the 
firmware rev isn't very important any 
CherylK5 And PEIseth has a question on the Re- 

source Manager 
Question Re the resource manager.. .what happens 

when the IIGS resource manager meets a 
Mac (HFS) file with resources? Does it 
recognize the Mac resource fork as an 






SEC Lass 








The Ilgs resource manager will not harm 
Mac resources but, it will not load them 
either, sorry. 

Max Genius has a question on access 
time for Jim... 

In system 5.0 will we see an increase In 
floppy disk access time? I mean past the 
1 Mhz. limit? 

Well, past lMhz what I would ask nor- 
mally., but system 5.0 floppy driver was 
rewritten to run faster, and the driver Is 
now mult I block aware, so instead of 
waiting for the next sequential block. If It 
sees a block that the app wants 1 1 will load 
it. thus, much faster loading times... 
Jim. here's another question for you on 

Will there be a new FST that will take 
advantage of volumes larger than 32 
meg.. . or will we be stuck with old ProDOS 
Well. -OldProdos" is stuck with 32 meg 
volumes as a max It wouldn't be ProDOS 
if It didn't... but GS/OS can support huge 
volumes and as an example the Ap- 

!>leshare FST can support up to 360 meg 
at least I hats the biggest I have seen So. 
with new file formats will come larger 
volume sizes but with ProDOS we will 
always have 32 meg. 
And now. on to the next question from 

How much will 5.0 speed up my 3.5 disk 

5.0 will speed upyour 3.5 drive by afactor 
of about two if your applications are 
written to read large chunks of data at 
one time. The finder works tills way as 
does the operating system when It reads 
applications into memory. This makes 
them load faster. When it comes to writ- 
ing to disk, the performance is about the 

You're still essentially doing disk l/o at 1 
MH2. but using tricks to make the appar- 
ent transfer speed a bit quicker. 
There aren't any tricks. The transfer 
speed is faster. 

Bad choice of words, perhaps. ...the 
Multi-Kache card still gets Info off the 
disk at 1MHz... the info Is read Into the 
computer from the cache at a higher 
speed, causing the apparent quick- 
ness.... this Is Just another technique. 
Will software that needed 1.25 Megs 
under 4.0 need more with 5.0 
If your software really used all the mem- 
ory in a 1 .25 meg system. It might run Into 
trouble with 5.0. We did not make Im- 
provements without taking up a little 
more memory. But on the most part, the 
applications we have tested seem to work 
all right. 

Some even better 

Jim. can you answer this question from 

Why is it that "fastfont" Is a specific case? 
I.e.. why aren't all font's preshlfted auto- 
matically when first loaded? 
Well, mainly because fastfonts are mem- 
ory pigs the fastfont we have put on the 
system disk is 4 times larger than Its 
standard counterpart But. the design of 
the fastfont code is such that other fonts 
■COULD" be made fast Its just that if we 
start doing them all the system starts to 
loose memory very quickly. Also, generat- 

24 g 


December 1989 
















ing the fastfont takes too long right now to 
do every time the font Is loaded and 
saving em all on disk would require an 
other 2 meg for your boot disk ! 
And here's a question from Wrist that's 
been asked a lot lately, Steve.your com- 

MacWeek had a story that said the II 
hardware group had been disbanded. 
Can Apple comment on thai? 
Lots of rumors have been flying lately 
aboutApple's support of the Apple II. This 
Is Just another one of them and none 
seem to have any fact behind them. Look 
at all the talk about us abandoning the II 
and what do we do? come out with system 
software 5.0. And while no one here can 
say what we'll do next you can all bet that 
we have not stopped working. In fact, we 
are working harder now than at any other 
time I can remember In my seven and one 
half years at apple (all with the apple II 
and apple III groups). 
This Apple II user does =not= rely on 
MacWeek for Info!!! 

Is Icon drawing (using the toolbox rou- 
Unes) and copying pixels from GrafPort to 
GrafPort speeded up In 5.0? 
Sure, I can take that one... Yes. pixel 
transfer operations were speeded some- 
what In 5.0. Here is a trick yopu can use 
by the way,.,. If you be sure all your icons 
are aligned to a byte boundary they will be 
draw quite a bit faster 
And Electmuslc has this question about 
special applications... 
Will special application programs (like 
Music programs- sequencers) written 
with GSOS 4.0. be compatable wiith 5.0 
Should be 

Cannot see any reason why not. 
we have tested 5.0 with many appllca- 
Uons and have gone to great lengths to be 
sure that the changes we have made are 

Jim Laz has another question... 
Will the new tools and maybe parts of the 
operating system be put into a ROM 
upgrade In the near future? 
Can't really talk about any ROM up- 
grades... Sorry. 

I'd like to thank Brian, Jim. Steve and 
Tracy for being here. Unfortunately. I 
have to leave for now so Tracy will be your 
host. Goodnlte! 

Good night Cheryl! ! Thanks for get ting us 
started! Walt Nelson has the next ques- 

How much larger will the system Hies be? 
Do 1 need a hard drive now? 
The system still works with flopple s. . . But 
If you have the opportunity, a Hard disk is 
a great investment, the system performs 
much better with one. You'll feel that 
you.. . have a new machine with a lot more 

We and third party developers should 
view system 5.0 as a sign that Apple Is 
serious about supporting the Apple II 
line. Correct? 
You better believe it! 
BradleyL Is concerned about SCSI com- 

Will System 5.0 work with a CMS inter 
face card or will I have to get an Apple 
SCSI card ? 
I don't know of any problems with CMS 


JimMensch Your CMS drtve should work fine, you 
might want to contact CMS and see If they 
have a GS/OS driver 

Question If I Install 5.0 on My 4.0 Programs. Does 

That Mean I'll See Faster Program Execu- 

JimMensch If they spend a lot of time calling the 
toolbox, then they will be somewhat 

SEGlass You'll see a number of things go faster by 

installing 5.0 on your older applications. 
For example, as Jim points out. the tool- 
box is faster and any toolbox calls that the 
old applications make will run faster. 
Also the OS is much faster which should 
make the applicaUons load and access 
data faster. Tills is especially true If you 
have a SCSI hard disk. So all In all it is a 
good idea to upgrade the system on your 
old software, but make sure you do it on 
a copy, not the original. You'll always 
want to be able to go back to the original 
just in case. 

Loucks Many graphics based G5 apps are much 

more RESPONSIVE under 5.0. 

Comment More of comment . but. . . It seems to be the 

history of the Apple II to do the most with 
the hardware that's available via soft- 
ware... Congrats to the Ilgs software 

SEGlass Thank you. We hope you like It 

Question I'm curious as to why the menu help 

feature was removed from Finder 1.3? 
Was this a memory or user Interface 
decision? Continued on Page 37 f&* 

3.5" 8QQK driv e 
(d ais y cha in ab l e) 

£239,25 POSTFREE 


MGA SnftCat (1233- 83294/83571 

December 1989 


g 25 

Using the Glanmire 

Jeremy Quinn tells u s how to use this 
device with ProDOS and the Zip chip 

The Problem 

I have bee n using a Glanmire M icro 
Watch for years now and find it very 
reliable, but I especially like the fact 
(hat it does'nt use a precious slot in 
my Applelle. The price you have to pay 
for this "economy" is that it is nor- 
mally unrecognized by ProDOS. 

This problem is quite well docu- 
mented, in Dec 88 Apple 2000 Dave 
Ward discusses it in some detail. In 
"Out of the Glanmire" he provides a 
"once only* patch for ProDOS VI. 4. 
His technique is to patch ProDOS di- 
rectly on disk. Unfortunately each 
version of ProDOS is going to look 
slightly different on disk, so each time 
a new version comes out you have to 
go searching for where to place the 
patches, not a trivial task. 

The Solution 

A solution to this problem Is to 
patch Prodos once it is In memory and 
"running", ie. after executing ProDos 
when all of its modules have been 
relocated to their runtime locations. 
Now it is possible to locate the posi- 
tion for your patches by looking up 
their locations in the I*roDos Global 

The location of interest Is 
DATET1ME $BK06. This Is a 3 byte 
vector to where ProDos can find your 
clock driver. Prodos JSR's to this loca- 
tion each time It needs to read your 
clock- The first byte should contain a 
JMP instruction ($4C1. the next two 
bytes contain the default clock driver 
address. If at bootup. a Thunder 
Clock or other ProDos "compatible" 
clock card was not found the first byte 
contains an RTS ($60). 

So what is now required is a pro- 
gram that will:- 

0. Read locations $BF07 and $BF08 
to ascertain where to move your 
clock code to. 

1. Move the code to the correct loca- 

2. Place a JMP Instruction In $BF06. 

3. Update MACID $BF98. the Ma- 
chine ID byte In Prodos Global Page 
that lets prodos know a compatible 
clock exists. 

The problem with this method is 
that Prodos has to be patched each 

and every time it is booted. Some way 
has to be found to automatically run 
your clock patch code right after Pro- 
dos. The most obvious method would 
be to make your Clock Patcher a sys- 
tem We. give it's name the .SYSTEM 
postfix and make it the first system 
file In your directory. 1 personally 
don't find this acceptable as it stops 
me running any other .SYSTEM file 
automatically like Prosel. System or 
Applcworks or something. 

So here are two solutions. One 
seems best for hard disk users the 

other for floppy disk users. 

I will show the "Floppy Disk" 
method first, it was presented to me 
by Terry Cymbalisry. There is an 
undocumented feature of later ver- 
sions of Prodos (versions 1.4 and later 
I think] In that ProDos searches for 
and executes a file called ATINTT type 
$E2. before carrying on as usual Ie. 
executing the first system file it finds. 
The original purpose of (his was to set 
up an Apple Talk interface, so if you 
use one of those ( this method is not for 

Terry's source code is In Listing 1 . it 
is In Merlin Assembler format 

The Clock Driver will work up until 
1992. after which you will have to 
change the YEARS table, see Apple 
2000 Dec'88. 

This is basically what it does:- 

0. Fetch the DATET1ME $BF00 vec- 
tor, place in Zero Page. 

1. Write enable the language card 
(this Is where the code goes). 

2. Store the length of the actual clock 
driver. For the Move routine. 

3. Move the clock driver using indirect 
Indexed addressing (hence the need 
to put DATET1ME in Zero Page). 

4. Patch the clock driver so it works at 
Its new location. 

5. Reset language card bank 2 and 
read Rora. 

6. Store a JMP Instruction at 

7. Set bit of the MACHI D $BF98 byte 
to 1 . so ProDos knows a compatible 
clock is installed, 

8. Load and execute the file ZIPCFG. 
Ring Bell if not found. This conflg- 
uresyourZipChip. (What! You don't 
have one?) 

9. Exit via an RTS Instruction. 

Pros of this method 

If you run programs from floppies, 
and consequentially reboot all the 
time, you want to keep the space used 
by such configuration routines on 
disk to a minimum. 

Its fast. 

Cons of this method 

If you have other configuration 
routines to run at bootup (like 
ZIPCFG). you have to re-write and 
assemble your AT1NIT file. 

Won't work with Apple Talk. 

The "Hard Disk" method of execut- 
ing Initialization files automatically 
on bootup is to use a program called 
SETUP.SYSTEM, by Sean Nolan. 
Described in Call Apple Nov'87 page 
14. With further comment useful to 
our GS comrades in Call Apple Feb'88 
page 29. 

To use this program you must:- 

0. Place Setup.Systern In your Root 
directory as the first .SYSTEM file. 

1. Create a Subdirectory called SET- 
UPS in your Root directory. 

2. Copy into SETUPS all the configu- 
ration programs you need to be 
executed automatically. Only types 
SYS and BIN are executed. 

3. Place the application you want to 
run after setting up as the next 
.SYSTEM file after Setup.Systern. 

4. Boot Prodos. 

Notes on configuration programs 
executed by Setup.Systern. 

Type BIN files can execute between 
$200-$3EF or $800-$B8FF. They 
should exit with an RTS. 

Type SYS files can execute between 
$2000 and $B8FF. They should exit 
with a ProDos MLI Quit call. 

Do not try to use Baslc.System In 

Use for things like RamDlsk Driv 
ers. Clock Drivers* ZipChlp Configu- 
ration. Prodos8 CDA's on the GS etc. 

Pros of this method 

It Is easy to add new or remove old 
configuration programs as they can 
all be separate files in your SETUPS 

Cons of this method 

It takes up more room on the disk as 
you have more short files, each taking 
up space on disk they may not use, 
along with SETUP.SYSTEM and the 
sub SETUPS. 

Can be a bit slower on a Floppy or a 
badly fragmented Hard disk. 

Tne source code for my version of 
the Glanmire clock driver is in Listing 
2. It is in Edasm Format. 

The main differences between my 
code and Terry's arc:- 

0. Our Clock Drivers are completely 
different! My code is totally relocat- 
able, so It does'nt need patching to 
work in a new location by the mover 

26 £E 


December 1989 


1. My Clock Driver does'nt do Year 
calculation so It needs patching 
every year. As I use a Hard Disk and 
only use one copy of the clock 
driver, this Is not a great hardship 
for me. But It could be a real pain If 
you have It on lots of disks. 

2. My code does'nt execute ZIPCFG. 
Just Include the Qlc ZIPCFG In your 
SETUPS subdirectory If you need It. 

Zip Chip stuff 

If you use a Zip Chip and the 
Glanmire Micro Watch, you will have 
found that a normal Clan ml re clock 
driver does'nt work at high speed. It 
seems the clock hardware can't cope. 
The trick Is to switch off the Zip Chip 
before reading the clock hardware 

then switch it on again afterwards. In 
the Zip Chip "manual" there Is some 
demonstration code for doing this, 
but as It amounts to loads of bytes of 
to do it I was finding it difllcult to 
squeeze my clock driver Into the 129 
byte limit allowed. So Yvan Zanebonl 
and I came up with a method of tem- 
porarily slowing down the Chip. In 
order to read the Game Paddles nor- 
mally ie. to come up with a number 
from 0-255 Instead of total garbage 
(0-1024 It would overflow anyway). 
The Zip Chip has a configuration 
option to slow down for Paddle reads. 
Aiiyway it transpires that If you Reset 
the Paddles (STA $C070) the Zip Chip 
thinks you are about to read them. 
Why else STA $C070? And as long as 
you have the chip Configured to slow 

down then, slow down 11 does for 5 
milliseconds, quite long enough to 
read the clock. The setting or pres- 
ence of paddles does not effect this 

If you use a Non Aux slot Ram Card 
like Plus Ram etc., then It Is worth 
configuring that slot to Fast Speed for 
the Zip Chip. You get a noticeable 
speedup for a RamDIsk or Cache 
using the card. That's why Terry and 
I are so keen to run ZIPCFG all the 

I have sent mine and Terry's clock 
drivers also SETUP.SYSTEM to Apple 
2000 library, so they should be avail- 
able from there. 

Jeremy Qulnn * 

Listing 1 


* * 

* Road. Clock * 

* * 

********** *ftft**ttttft *««**********« 

















ORG $2000 























Anunciator Off 
Anunciator On 

Anunciator 1 Off 
Anunciator 1 On 
Anunciator 2 On 
Paddle Button 2 
Writ© enable SD000 
Bank 1 

Set SD000 Bank 2 
Monitor BELL Routine 
ProDOS DATE Store 

ProDOS TIME Store 

Machine ID Byte 

; Set up Vectors . 

; Required by ProDOS. 
; Set Read Mode. 

; Set Shift Mode- 

; Get sees 6 throw away 

; Get mine 

; and atore. 

; Get hour a 

; and atore. 

; Now muck about with 

; the date. 





















; Work out the year. 

























; Back to ProDOS 

; Delay before reading 

; Routine to pulse data 

; out of the clock. 

$00, $1F, $3B, $5A, $78, $97 

December 1989 


£B 27 


* * 

* Relocate Clock driver into space used by * 

* Thunderclock 

* * 
A****************************** •«*** ******** 































($06), Y 















; Move vector to zero 

; Write enable Languaqe 

; bank 1 
; Put length of driver 

in Y 
; Get driver byte 
; Put in ProDOS clock 


; Moved everything? 
; If" not., get more. 

; Patch address of READ 
; into routine 

; Save offset 

; and add it to address 

; of START2 

; 5 Patches to be made 

; Start looking at byte 


; Get byte of routine 

; Does it match low byte 

; of READ'S address? 

; If so do a patch 

; One less to do 

; If not finished do 

; Patch address of 


$06 ; into routine. 








$06 i 








Patch address of YEARS 
into routine. 










; Set bank 2 and read 

; Put a JMP instruction 

; in ProDOS global page. 

; Get machine ID byte 

; and say ^compatible 

; clock installed' ! 

; Load ZIPCFG to $300. 

; If no error, run 


; Else ring bell 

; and leave. 

; else run ZIPCFG 

; and leave. 




; This bit patches new 


($06), Y 

; addresses into 





($06) , Y 





; Data space 




; Offset of M0NTHT.F.N 




; Offset of YEARS call 

* * 

* Load in ZIPCFG at $300 * 

* * 


EQU $BF00 










Listing 2 
























; ProDOS System call 

; Open ZIPCFG 

; If error, leave. 

; Get file reference no. 

GETTEOFRF ; and set up for getting 





; fije length, reading 
; and closing file. 

; Get file length 

; If error, leave 

; Tranfer file length 

; to Read Parms 

; Read ZIPCFG 


READPRMS ; MB if error, close 





$3 ; length of Parm list 

PATHNAME ; File name (ZIPCFG) 

$3000 ; I/O Buffer 

$00 ; File Reference number 

$2 ; Length of Parm list 

$00 ; File reference no. 
$00, $00, $00 

$4 ; Length of Parm list 

$00 ; File Reference no. 

$0300 ; Load address. 

$0000 ; Length to read 

$0000 ; Bytes transferred 

$1 ; Length of Parm list 

$00 ; File Reference no. 

CLOCK. DRV. G. ZP Verl . 1 
by Jeremy Ouinn 

With ThanXs to;- 

Yvan Zaneboni for the slow down help. 
Dennis Doms for the Mover. 

Glanmire for the ClocX road coda. 



December 1909 

program to patch any version of prodos 
so that it works with the Glanmire Micro 

This version is designed to work with a Zip 

Chip installed 

It needs to slow down the Zip chip so the 

clock can be read. 

This is done by accessing Loc. $C07Q, 

normally used for resetting the Analog Inputs 
(Paddles) . It only works if you have 
previously configured the Zip Chip to handle 
Paddles slowly. 

this routine needs the year to be hand 
patched when the Program is loaded to $2000 
Year ie 89 goes in $2089 

ie. in 1990, from the Basic .System prompt 

Pok© 8329,90 
Bsave /YourVol /SETUPS/ 

CLOCK. DRV. G,ZP,tsys,A8329, LI, B$S9 
Happy New Year! 






















* clock code (Relocatable) 











M. Vet. Hi 



























C. Vet. Hi 











































EQU SC089 







* Move Code 



C.Vct.Lo ; find out where this 

; version of Prodos 

; wants the code 




C. Vet. Hi 


M. Vet. Hi ; setup a Vector to that 



WRAM1 ; write enable Dank 2 





M.Loop LDA 

CI1C.S,Y ; move the code 


(M.Vct.Lo) ,Y 











Datetime ; put JMP in DATETIME 






Macld ; set machine ID byte 





LDA An2on 

; This tricks the zip 

chip into slowing down 

; Read Clock From 

Gldiiniirt* Electronics 
































; Convert Data 





ecpj * 

equ Clk.E-Clk.S; get EDASM to 
determine length of code 

December 1989 


S 29 

Program Writer 2.0 

Dave Ward ta k es a second look at 
this excellent Applesoft Editor 

Program Writer Is a full screen editor 
for Applesoft programs and for con- 
venience Is designed to work Just like 
the AppleWorks word processor 
which makes It extremely easy to use 
and very powerful. When I reviewed 
version 1.0 In the August 1987 edi- 
tion of Apple 2000 magazine I wrote :- 

"The best Applesoft Editor I )\ave 

After completing this review I have 
no reason for changing my views. 

Observant readers may have seen a 
more recent review of Program Writer 
version by Birre Genberg of AUG 
Sweden in the October 1989 issue of 
the magazine. Few programs deserve 
such a high profile. I think, however, 
that Program Writer Is one of them; 
hence this review. 

Purchasing the Program 

When you purchase Program 
Writer you get a nice box containing a 
42 page manual, the programs on 
both 3.5" and 5.25" diskettes and the 
usual Beagle Bros, advertising and 
information. The manual Is compre- 
hensive and clearly written but with 
none of the amusing Beagle Bros, 
diagrams that we have been used to 
seeing over the last 9 years or so. 

When I previously reviewed the 
product I felt that a number of extra 
features could be added. With the 
introduction of this version and the 
change of publisher some of those 
features have been added although 
some features that they felt were not 
too Important have been lost. Another 

change Is that there Is no longer a 
tree' version of ProBASIC on the re- 
verse side of the 5.25" diskette; a pity. 

To use this product you'll require an 
Apple //e. 128K. an Apple //c or 
Apple Ilgs: this new version 2.0 does 
not support the Apple j| or Apple ][ 
plus as did version 1 .0. The diskettes 
are different, not only in size. too. The 
3.5" media contains just the PtoDOS 
programs necessary whilst the 5.25" 
diskette contains these same pro- 
grams but also a 'hidden' DOS 3.3 
version. Although I hardly use DOS 
3.3 nowadays many still do and it's 
nice to see support for this operating 
system. Figure 1 lists the flics on the 
3.5" diskette. 

Under both operating systems 
there are three main versions of the 
Editor :- 

1} Standard Editor - which takes up 
main memory below Dos or Pro- 

2) Language card version - which 
loads Into the second 64K memory 
bank In 128K Apple //e . Apple // 
c and Apple IIGS computers . In 64K 
Apple //e computers, for DOS 3.3 
only. It tries to load Into the lan- 
guage card. This versLon only uses 
256 bytes of main memory for its 
global page interface. 

3) Small Editor - which takes up much 
less memory and would be mainly 
used where main memory is at a 
premium. Most of the most useful 
commands are omitted In this ver- 

You simply Install the Editor of your 
choice from one of the above menus or 
by entering BRUN EDITOR.LC when 
the Applesoft 1 prompt appears. I 
Install mine using a small Applesoft 
program a ProSel menu or alterna- 
tively you could use an EXEC file. 
When the Editor la installed it prints 
a message and then falls Into Apple- 
soft :- 

Figure 1 

































































































1 8-APR-89 





Program Writer 2.0 

Beagle Bros, Inc 

Copyright (C) 1986-1989 by Alan 



At the 1 prompt you can load your 
Applesoft program. Entry Into the 
Editor is simply achieved by typing 
&& followed by RETURN*. Figure 2 
shows a typical screen. 

The bottom line where the FREE 
memory Is shown on the right Is the 
COMMAND IJNE. This is used for the 
entry of lext' to FIND . REPLACE etc. 

Moving the cursor around the 
screen and moving through the 

As you can see the Program Writer 
Editor is a screen editor which works 
Just as If the program listing were part 
of a much larger text ille in Apple- 
Works. The screen Is in fact a window 
on the whole list Ing. The author. Alan 
Bird, has tried to make the cursor and 
editing commands as close to those 
used In AppleWorks as possible. 
Simple cursor moves can be made 
with the arrow keys and like Apple- 
Works the up/down arrow keys + the 
Open Apple key (OA-) cause the lut- 
ing to move by a whole screen In the 
direction chosen. The OA- + left/right 
keys cause the cursor to move to the 
next word in (hat direction. 

As in AppleWorks the OA- 1 keys 
move the cursor to the beginning of 
the file and the OA-9 keys to the end 
of the flic. Digits between 1 & 9 cause 
the cursor to move proportionally 
within the file. If you have a mouse the 
Editor allows you to move the cursor 
at will all over the screen. If you at- 
tempt to move the 
cursor beyond the top 
or the bottom of the 
screen the listing 
scrolls in the appro- 
priate direction- 
Pressing the mouse 
button also causes 
scrolling and the di- 
rection depends 
whether the cursor is 
In the top or bottom 
half of the screen. 
This is rather a nice 

When editing Ap- 
plesoft programs you 
will most likely want 


s s 


December 1989 

to edit a particular line. You can jump 
to a line of your choice by entering OA- 
J when you will be prompted for a 
number. Pressing •RETURN' has two 
effects, firstly the cursor will move to 
the start of the next line with a num- 
ber and secondly ALL the line will be 

TAB - move9 the cursor 8 charac- 
ters right 

OA-TAB - moves the cursor 8 char- 
acters left 

OA-, - moves the cursor to the 
beginning of the line. 

OA-. - moves the cursor to the end 
of the line. 

The Replace and Insert cursors 

Just like AppleWorks there are two 
cursors: a white box and flashing 
underline for replace/insert modes 
respectively. These may be toggled 
with OA-E. Clearing from cursor to 
end-of-iine is accomplished with OA- 
Y. Pressing return only takes you to 
the next line number and leaves the 
old line intact 

When you edit a line a + cursor will 
appear. Whilst this cursor is present 
you can reinstate the original line by 
pressing ESCape. 

Deleting characters can be 
achieved by pressing Delete or OA- 
Delete. Line or lines can be deleted 
with OA-D. 

Other commands allow one to 
change the case of the text. OA-U for 
upper case and OA-L for lower case. 

Splitting program lines into two 

If lines should start to get too long 
you can split them with OA-T. You are 
prompted with the new line number 
which is. by default, 1 greater than 
the line you have attempted to split. 
You can edit this to a more satisfac 
tory number, if you wish. If you try to 
split line 22. for Instance and choose 
the prompt line 23, It will overwrite 
any existing line 23 without warning! 

Cutting and Pasting to the clip- 

Program Writer has cut and paste 
operations but they are different than 
those In AppleWorks. Move the cursor 
to the start of the text you wish to 'cut' 
and then press OA-C then move the 
cursor to the end of text to tat' this 
will be highlighted in Inverse. Then 
press return. To paste just move the 
cursor to the start ana press OA-P. 
This only works on a maximum of one 
line. New to version 2.0, however, is 
the ability to cut many lines of the 
program with the OA-! command. 
This way one could copy whole rou- 
tines from one program to another. All 
you do is to load in the next program 
and use the OA-® command which 
magically restores all the lines to your 
new program and moves the cursor to 
the right place In the program! On 
I28K Apple //e and Apple Ilgs com- 
puters there appears to be no limit to 
the number of lines you can copy. Be 

Figure 2 

+ 25€ * PEEK (176) - 169: GOTO 50000 

1 IR - PEEK (175) 

POP : GOTO 21 

ON F%(F%) + 1 GOTO 20,2: STOP 

PRINT "Saving the ED - please wait": PRINT CHR$ (4) "SAVE 
"Saved the ED PROGRAM": END 
GET K$:K - ASC (K$) :K - K - 32 * (K > 96 AND K < 123) :K$ - 

PRINT D$"COPY" + P0$ + F$ + *,* + Pl$ + F$: RETURN 

PRINT D$"CLOSE"F$(F%) :F% (F%) - 0: RETURN 









20 F%(F%) 

^Closes all — 


33 CALL IR'TRINT USING"," 0.000";NU / 100;: RETURN 


FREE; 17649 

careful though, as you could over- 
write any existing lines that overlap 
with the ones you are pasting. 

Inserting and Adding new line* 

You can enter a new line by Issuing 
OA-I when a blank line Is produced 
with the + cursor. You can tnen enter 
a whole line Including the line num- 
ber. Version 2,0 allows one to add 
lines on any b lank line or at the end of 
the program without the need to use 
OA-I to create a blank line.:you are 
prompted to enter the starting line 
number and Increment 

OA-A Invokes auto- line numbering. 
You will be prompted for starting line 
number and Increment. When you 
have entered all the lines that you 
desire Just press ESCape to return to 
the editor. 

Finding and Replacing 

Like all good wordprocessora the 
Editor in Program Writer has an ex- 
cellent Find/Replace facility which 
are Invoked by OA-F and OA-R re- 
spectively. You can back out at any 
time by ESCaplng. In version 2.0 
there are two types of search available 
toggled with OA-W. They are - search 
for characters, anywhere or word 

search, where the character chosen 
must be delimited by non-alphabeti 
cal characters such as space or • etc. 

Renumbering lines In the program 
Program Writer allows you to re- 
number parts or all of your program 
by entering OA-#. You will be warned 
If there Is aconfllct and the renumber- 
ing will not take place. One note of 
caution, however. If your Applesoft 
program has machine code attached 
at the end of the program It will be lost 
on renumbering. Since many of my 
Applesoft programs have such ma- 
chine code appended I cant use this 

feature on them. 

Miscellaneous commands 

OA-H This, like it's AppleWorks 
equivalent allows one to dump the 
current screen to a printer which has 
been Improved In version 2.0 to let 
One dump the list of variable screen 
and macros screen. 

OA-N This ts a toggle that removes 
all the non-essentlanto the program) 
spaces from all lines In the program. 
Spaces In REM. Data statements and 
between quotes are retained, how- 
ever. The screen looks very cluttered 
and If youve placed the cursor on a 
particular line, it won't be there when 
you press OA-N 

OA-V lists all the variables in your 
program in only a few seconds even 
for long programs. In version 2.0 you 
can use OA-H to get a hard copy. 
Program Writer encourages one to 
copy whole routines from one pro- 
gram to anotherwhlch saves you even 
more time. With this utility you can 
easily check for variable conflicts and 
deal with them before pasting in the 

OA-X toggles screen between 40 & 
80 columns. 

Leaving the editor 

OAQ exits the Editor to Applesoft 
] . This Is necessary to enable you to 
SAVE and LOAD your programs. Do 
save your programs often during edit- 
ing. Remember you can re-enter the 
Editor with && 'RETURN'. 

The Program In Use 

Using this Editor Is so fast that I 
have had problems in the past where 
I was editing suites of programs; it's 
easy to save the program with the 
wrong name so that it over-writes one 
of the others. To combat this & make 
SAVEing of my Applesoft programs 

December 1989 


£ B 


even easier I now set up a line In the 
program, such as :- 

9 PRINT "Saving the ED - 
pl«ase wait"; PBINT CHR$ 

n Savod th« ED PROGRAM": END 

All I do then is to type GOT09 and 
the deed is done! once the carriage 
Return is pressed. RUN9 normally 
works, too but you might be working 
with the Beagle Compiler when only 
GOT09 works. Saving all my pro- 
grams with GOTC9 is just like 

using other systems where the 
name of the program you are working 
on is remembered by the system. 

OA-Z permits suicide by erasing 
the Editor from memory. Although 
the ED1TOR.LC version only uses a 
few bytes of the 4SK RAM this may be 
required by some programs to run 
properly. If you want to use the Editor 
again you will have to re- load it. of 

To Sum Up 

Even after 1 1 years Applesoft is still 
a very popular programming lan- 
guage which many Apple II owners 
use because it is so easy and relatively 
fast. Even with the coming of the 
Apple IIGS and the new breed of 
BASICS. Applesoft still performs well 
and on the Apple IIGS It runs two and 
a half times faster too. Couple this 
with the plethora of accelerators 
available for classic Apple II comput- 
ers and the Beagle Compiler and 
you've got a very attractive program- 
ming language. Now add in Program 
Writer and youVe got a first class 
editor, too. 

Program Writer. The Beagle Com 
piler and a fast Apple II computer 
make an excellent development sys- 
tem for Apple II programs. 

If you write Applesoft programs.try 
Program Writer, it will make develop- 
ment of your programs very much 
quicker and easier. In fact you, 11 
wonder how you managed before! 1 
use the Editor for even the smallest 
Applesoft program because It Is so 
quick and easy. 

In conclusion 

The new editor appears to be faster, 
cleaner and has a more professional 
presentation. With the Beagle Com- 
piler it will give Applesoft a many more 
years of life! 
Dave Ward * 

Tills product was kindly s upplled to 
us by MGA Microsystems and is avail- 
able from them :- 


Kent TN26 2AK 

Price : £39-95 including VAT & P&P 

The Hot Line 

Q Since AppleWorks version 3.0 has 
been menUoned in the Apple // litera- 
ture I have been literally inundated 
with members commenung upon the 
difficulty in getting upgrades. Some 
members have sent off their diskettes 
only, apparently, to slightly increase 
the mass of an invislbleblack hole. As 
one might expect telephone calls to 
this black hole are one way. too. Those 
members who have contacted Claris 
(UK) have been met with blanks and 
they don't even know of one of their 
choice tidbit of information came to 
me via William Watson who obtained 
his update a long Ume ago. Tills offi- 
cial Claris dealer is :- 

86 Weston Park 
Crouch End 
London N8 9PP 
Telephone 01-341-9023 
Fax 01-281-7326 

Clocktower Is run by Alan Finn and 
he will supply any Claris product; 
Appleworks 3.0 upgrade costs £60.00 

□ Ttie above was written lust a few 
days after the deadline for the October 
Issue and since then I have heard 
more from members who have con- 
tacted me via the Hotline: - 

1 } Many have contrasted the appall- 
ing treatment they have received from 
Claris with their usual excellent treat- 
ment from Bldmuthin who are now 
stocking AppleWorks 3.0. You'll find 
the address and telephone number of 
Bldmuthin Technologies elsewhere. 
In their advertlsments. In this maga- 

2} You can also get AppleWorks 3.0 
from Holdens Computer Services in 
Preston. See their Advertlsments for 
their address and telephone number, 

3) Just as the deadline for th Is issue 
is reached 1 hear that some members 
have received their updates from 
Claris. The modus operandi here is 
that they receive a letter or telephone 
call saying that their update will be 
received in three weeks via Ireland. If 
youve sent off to the USA arm of 
Claris and haven't heard yet give 
Claris USA a very nice but very FIRM 

'•■ When you order an update you 
will not get the same package as 
buying a new system: you'll get the 
manual and a disk but not, possibly, 
tutorials etc. Check when you order. 

U System 5.0 users on the Apple Ilgs 
may like to try the following suggested 

to me by Terry Morris :- 

1] On booting up keep the option 
and open-apple keys pressed and 
watch the thermometer'! 

2) When In the Kinder hold down the 
shift and opuon keys together and 
then click on the Apple icon and 
choose "About...." from the menu. A 
box will appear with some Icons. Try 
clicking on these icons. 

Q Apple manufacture two excellent 
computer lines but over here they 
only admit to one; the Macintosh. 
Well over there a new Apple Ilgs has 
been launched to replace the exlsUng 
one. This machine has 1 megabyte on 
the motherboard and a few major 
Improvements to the ROM with minor 
Improvements to the graphics and 
sound etc. I've heard of two people 
over here who have these machines 
which show ROM version 3 on the 
screen when booting. If you have one 
of these machines set the control 
panel to boot slot 5 and leave It empty. 
Then attempt to boot the empty slot 5 
and you will get a screen with little 
apples moving horizontally from one 
side to the other. Press Option + Open 
Apple + Control + N and you will see 
tlie list of developers of the Apple Ilgs 
and in this version of the KOM get a 
dlglUsed sound of 'Apple two' from 
those people! 

J 1 get quite a lot of enquiries from 
members with Apple // computers 
with hard disk systems from the early 
to middle l$80's who are having 
problems. Perhaps we could all get to 
gether on this one? Would any mem- 
ber who is successfully using an 
Apple // computer with an older non- 
SCSI interface such as :- 



or any other such system please let 
me know. If you have the System 
Disks for any of these obsolete drives, 
let us know if you are willing to pass 
copies on to others who have inher- 
ited drives without them. 

I am especially interested in hearing 
from those who have managed to use 

a version of ProDOS on these drives 
later than ProDOS 1.0.1. 

Q Finally, please all note the new 
number for the Apple II Hot Line: 

Dave Ward 4 

32 S 


December 1989 

What they said about DOORMAT-80 ; 

"Doormat WHAT?" Weakly Computing 

M Doormat-80 turns your Apple II 
into a powerful and effective word 

processor" Deceit Software 

"Doormat-80 accelerated 1rom rest 
to a large fraction of the speed of 

light in about 30 seconds" AutoVan 

"Doormat-80 is great, Doormat-80 

is great" Polly the Parrot 




77a Robblngthem Road 



Deceit Software Company proudly present a new and 
guaranteed completely useless disk. Doormat-81 is 
designed to impress all your friends who have only 
Doormat-80. Keep it in the special sleeve in the manual 
and no one need ever know that it doesn't actually do 
anything. A bargain at only 4,500 Swiss Francs. 

Doormat-80 T-Shirts, specify logo 

"I've been done by D.S.C." or 
"Join the Elite - delight with 

80 Swiss Francs 


Or alternatively word processing 
so advanced anyone can use it. 

Format-80 for the complete range of Apple II 
computers - £99 + VAT. 

Format-PC for MS-DOS computers - £245 + VAT. 
Upgrade from Format-80 to Format-PC - £165 + VAT. 

Elite Software also offers a data transfer service from 
Format-80 to MS-DOS files. Please contact us for 
further details. 




4 Hawthylands Drive 
East Sussex 
BN27 1HE 

0323 845898 

Software from a company with 
a sense of humour! 

AppleWorks 3.0 

Peter Davis finds AppleWorks 3.0 even 
better than be fore and well worth the 
trouble he took to get it 

In reviewing AppleworksV3.0. I feel 
very inhibited trying to find some- 
thing Tom We ish aar m issed out of the 
article appearing In the August 89 
edition of Apple2000. There was not 
much. But then he did not have the 
same difficulty buying it, that Claris 
USA seem to have placed In the path 
of non-USA residents. Perhaps the 
toughest part about Apple- 
WorksV3.0. was acquiring it. I have 
been attempting the near impossible 
since June. Now I am pleased to say 
that Bidmuthin. Holdens and MCA 
stock both new and upgrade versions. 
Even FrontLlne after long and mas- 
sive silence acknowledge that It ex- 
ists. What a way to start an article. 
Even so AppleWorks must be the 
reason why so many people stick with 
theApplell. When something which is 
a major upgrade appears, I would 
hardly have expected there to be such 
initial resistance from the publishers 
In accepting our money. Let there be 
no mistake, this is a major upgrade. 
My second bit of "inhibition" Is that to 
a large extent I have assumed that 
readers are familiar with the Apple- 
Works Interface. 

Getting Started 

The package comes with on 3.5" or 
3 x 5.25" disks with Prodos V1.7 
equipped with an Improved version of 
Birds Better Bye, which uses Tab" to 
move from device to device. 

If you have a system clock, there is 
no more space bar required at 
startup, so that you do not have to 
wait at the copyright screen to have 
the date entered. 

If you have additional RAM. this Is 
recognised by the memory manager 
and a horizontal thermometer screen 
tells you that AppleWorks Is being 
loaded to memory. Memory manage 

ii it-iiI works perfectly with auxiliary 

slot like AEZ-RamUltra without any 
software modification and no doubt 
with the standard Apple memory 
card. It also works perfectly with stan- 
dard slot based RAM such as the 
RamW6rks or ASTSprlntdisk. Not 
alas, with Clrtech's older versions of 
Flipper and PlusRam, at least not yet. 
On the subject of Ram. an Interest- 
ing feature appears to be that a 
Printer BuiTer is enabled If there is 

excess KAM space within the desktop. 
When you send data down the line a 
"Cool Thermometer" tells you what is 
going on. 

The minimum system set up, for 
128K is catered for. AppleWorks 3.0 
will even run on a one -drive 128K 
system, but the desktop size Is rather 
smaller. Exactly 40K with Apple- 
Works 3.0. versus 56K with Apple- 
Works 2. 1 of my simplest He. 

The Word Processor, Data Base and 
Spread Sheet are each separate 
modules. To capitalise on this. 8 op- 
tions are offered in the "Other Activi- 
ties - menu for specifying preloading 
to memory. You can define •none". 
Word Processor (or any one, or combi- 
nations of two), or all modules de- 
pending on the module you are using 
and you available Ram. The "Help 
Screen" comes up wltli InformaUon 
for the module you as with version 2.0 

The pain has been taken out of 
loading files from subdirectories. You 
can easily navigate through your 
subdirectories using the arrow keys. I 
found this process hard to get used to 
at first because Open-App!e-> or < 
keys (comma, full stop) are used. Not 
quite as easy as selecting normal 
AppleWorks flies, but a needed Im- 

Text files are as easy to add as any 
other AppleWorks file and appear 
when ask to load from a TXT file. 
Saving, sorry "printing a text file to the 
disk", now assumes you want the 
current directory. In other words, you 
no longer require a high performance 
short term memory to get the path 
name absolutely correct. There are 
number of new TXT file opUons too. in 
the word processor you are offered. 
Standard format with 'Talis. Spaces 
substituted for stops. Returns after 
each line. The Data Base and Spread 
Sheet are equally well cared for. 

The menu makes It all clear that you 
now have two saving options; saving 
to the current drive or alternatively 
the directory the file where the file 
originated. Many of you will be famil- 
iar with Opcn-Apple-S. but now you 
get the smart save directly from Open 

"Add files to the Desktop" gets to 
your list of files and instead of trawl- 

ing through them one by one. Open- 
Apple-Down (-Up), takes you In- 
stantly through the list. The ruler 
Open-Apple- 1 thru 9 also works. 

When you are In an application, you 
can recognise that you are in Apple- 
Works3.0 because of the different 
upper /lower borders. This l-~«l is 
replaced by this <==»«<. 

The Data Base 

The major improvements include 
horizontal scrolling, left titles, up to 
24 labels across, 20 report formats. 
Data Base find (A-F) offers •Any- 
where 1 ' or for greater search speed "In 
Specific Category". More than 16.000 
records In the Data Base are allowed 
and there Is no limit on the clipboard 
other that how much Ram you have. 

Another new and useful feature Is 
the ability to freeze titles on the left 
hand side of the multiple record lay- 
out. This makes good sense with 
horizontal scrolling. Another inter 
esUng feature is a three level sort 
option under Open-Apple-A. This al- 
lows you to sort on say "Name" and 
"Company" alphabetically (date etc) 
all at one pass. On older versions of 
AppleWorks, the same thing could be 
achieved by sorting (from A to 7) on 
"Name" first and last on "Company" to 
have everyone In AlphabeUcal order 
where the list contains names If 
company Is blank, followed by a list- 
ing by company, with Individuals 
within the company grouped alpha- 

Unfortunately AppleWorks does 
not show current time on the main 
screen, the data base gives this under 
Date and Time categories which enter 
the actual Prodos date and time If you 
type an "©" symbol under the appro- 
priate category. I do mean Prodos 
time, not "startu p date time", which is 
what would have appeared under any 
Imaginable situation under "Old 
AppleWorks". This is a new feature. 

Word Processor 

No more copying 255 lines at a time 
to the clipboard and you are allowed 
up to 16.000 lines in a Word Proces- 
sor document. Multiple line headers 
and footers. Text files are as easy to 
add as any other AppleWorks file, and 
tills is feature Is still further improved 
because tabs and returns are cor- 
recUy Interpreted from TXT files from 
oUier software. fThis Is not quite so 
simple as It reads, but rest assured 
you get the options you need to 
handle most kinds of TXT file formal.) 

EffecUvely there Is another line of 
Open-Apple-O, Printer options. 
Amongst these Is a date or time 
"caret" that stamps the document 
with actual time as you print it. I 
would have preferred something that 
shows the actual Ume on the screen, 
but then my exact requirement Is 
available in the Data Base. (See later). 

There are number of new Control 
features added a little different but 
useful. B for "Boldface". -U for 



December 1989 

"Underline" where always there, but now you get -N , -R, 
-F and -C for "Normal" textjusUHcaUon, for "Right" Justi- 
fication , for "Full" Justification (aligning both sides) and for 
"Centering". Control-P Is page break- By the way once you 
Zoom out no printer or text commands appear, so you see 
something that looks rather more like the final printed 

You can now print a single page (or range of pages) In the 
word processor as from the curser or this page. You still 
have the same defaults settings of characters per Inch, 
platen width, right margin, left margin, top margin and 
bottom margin. You can still adjust ci, pw, rm, Lm, tm, and 
bm to get the letter to fit the page. 

Mall Merge works like it did before, in conjunction with 
existing clipboard information from the Data Base. 

An UUraMacros feature. Open-Apple-Delete, takes out 
the character under the curser. I am so used to this one 1 
had to check It never came with virgin versions, of "old" 

Tabbing now works in a way that I can at last use and 
understand with Open-Apple-T. Tills feature Is now really 
quite powerful in that tabs can be specified from the right, 
left, and center with different specifications for each 

There is a built In spell checker Invoked by Open Apple 
V. This has a larger dictionary than TimeOut Quicks pell 
(395 BLK as opposed to 334 BLK) . You get the long one 3.5" 
disks and a shorter one that fits on a 5.25" disk. There Is 
provision for several custom dictionaries which could 
match an Individual person's needs or a special subject 
area. Suspect words are offered for correction in two 
alternate modes. Either In context or as a list as with 
QuickSpell. The logic is both spelling and phonetic and 
this is a more powerful system than that of QuickSpell. if 
you compare "CARREER" on the two systems, QuickSpell 
gives never ending list of suggestions. AppleWorks3.0 gets 
"CAREER" In one go. 


It now possible to have 9999 rows in the Spreadsheet. 
The limits are off the clipboard, and it really is possible to 
copy from the one module to another using the clipboard. 
in an even simpler way than using the TimeOut Clipboard 
Converter on Versions 2.0 and 2.1 of AppleWorks. The 
clipboard also allows blocks to be copied between spread 
sheets, rather than complete rows or columns. 

From my point of view the addition of mathematical 
(Trigonometric and Log), financial and logical functions is 
a major Improvement. There were so many areas where 
only SuperCalc3A would handle the type of problem I have 
had to answer, now a good deal of that Is past, with 26 new 
functions added. 

Examples are:* «8>COS(B15/B14)> the cosine of a value 
in radians. <®IFG9<160."Triln" 1 "Faf> for the logic if G9 
less than 160 then print "thin" else "Fat". <®RATE(18/12. 
-48000. 54250)> determines the annual rate of return on 
a thousand snares purchased at £48.00 and sold 18 
months later at£54.00. The answer is 8. 5% annual return. 

In Paul McMulllns article (Apple 2000 October 89 pp 21) 
he makes a very interesting comparison between a num- 
ber of spread sheets listing their built in functions. Apple- 
Works 3.0 adds 18 functions to his list and leaves Super- 
Calc still in the lead by 5. This makes a major difference, 
even though in my opinion, there certain spread sheet 
features of SuperCalc which make it superior (eg identity 
of Labels and Values), it does not form part of the Inte- 

S rated package. For the new spread sheet features alone, 
lese new features alone, version 3.0 will be a "must" for 
people needing these facilities. 

The "Old AppleWorks" Spreadsheet had the annoying 
feature that extra information was required about platen 
width. With the version 3 spread sheet, you don't have to 
set this any more, the module reads it from your original 
printer conilguration. The spreadsheet has the same 
"Print All" feature, which almost works Just like before, but 
with the intelligent improvement that if the data on your 
spread sheet is too wide for the printer, then the part you 








APPLE][ + OR //e Power Supply £32 

APPLE][ + OR //e Motherboard £32 

Apple Interlace Card (most makes) £25 

Disk Drive - cleaned & aligned £25 

Please ring for other repair prices or 

send equipment for free estimate 

Quantity Discounts available 



Take your Mac+/SE to 2.5MB or even 4MB 

Take your Mac 11 to 5MB or even 8MB 




MacPlus Connectors, Serial & Apple Talk 
Price depends on quantity 





TEL (0625) 34691 


11x9.5" microperf 100g (prices include VAT) 



VALUE PAK (250) 









VALUE PAK (250) 










(£2 001945) 


MGA SOftCat (0233)83294/83571 

December! 989 


ffl S 35 

cannot get onto the first sheet, follows 
on the next page. 


They have added 22 more printers. 
And for those of you who wanted to 
access special effects on your printer, 
italics, higher quality text, special 
characters, they have added three 
"custom codes" for every printer, even 
the standard ones. You can add 
whateverprinteffectyou like by defin- 
ing one of those special codes. One 
little point "custom printer" is listed 
half way through the printer list. It 
has been at the end of the list for years 
and for a moment I panicked ! 

1 have to say this is an aspect I have 
not fully explored, but the use of 
AppleWorks with a Lazer printer 
seems now fully supported. 

What is not there 

Although there are few new special 
key commands. I would have liked to 
see more vestigial macros for really 
awkward things like superscript and 

Why wasn't date stamping included 
In the main menu and perhaps more 
Important in the spread sheet ? Well 
as always there may be an undocu- 
mented answer, there certainly is for 
the spread sheet. The neat © charac- 
ter from the Data Base . gives date and 
time under appropriate categories. 
Use Opcn-Appie-C <T> (to the clip- 
board) from Data Base, then another 
<Open-Apple-C> <F> puts readable 
date and time into the Spread Sheet In 
two cells. (Almost like the Word 
Processor.le 9.19 PM Oct 30 891- 

Why wasn't automatic footnoting 
included In the word processor ? 

It might seem from the manual that 
you have to have the dictionary In the 
main directory of a device called / 
AppleWorks. This is not so. The main 
dictionary seems to work quite cor- 
rectly as long as It Is In the main 
directory of a device with any name. / 
Hard. /RAM7 etc. So fear not. Just 
another undocumented feature! 

As if you did not know, most of the 
mentioned lacking features will be 
catered for with some upcoming add- 
ons that will handle these very minor 
moans and for these of course you will 
have to pay! A new and even more 
powerful version of UltraMacros Is 
promised, so lets wait and sec. 

Is It all worth It ? 

There are new file types for files with 
AppleWorks 3.0 specific data in them. 
The file type itself does not change, 
only the internal structure of the file. 
AppleWorks 2.1 Is smart enough to 
recognize the difference between the 
two. but AppleWorks 2.0 crashed 
when I tried to re-load a file that had 
been through AppleWorks 3.0. The 
file structures are supposed to be 
identical to older AppleWorks files, 
unless you use the "new" features, 
but In practical terms, you have to 
make a decision. Just playing around 

I managed to introduce a new feature 
without realizing it. To be fair, most 
times even "old" AppleWorks 2.0 rec- 
ognizes that something is amiss and 
gives this warning. 

This file exceeds the limits of 
AppleWorks on this Apple //. 

I also succeeded In getting some 
unaccountable crashes. This may be 
something to do with me. but there Is 
a suspicion that Just perhaps there 
may be some bugs lurking. It would 
not be surprising with a major up- 
grade of this kind. So it may not be too 
long before there is a version 3. 1 . With 
the support that seems to doled out to 
non-USA residents, getting the bug 
free version could turn out to be 
another horrifying obstacle course 
and this really has to be weighed in 
the cost/benefit sum. 

If you are like me. you may very well 
have version 2.0 or 2.1 fully Inte- 
grated with TvmeOut UltraMacros 
and a whole line of other accessories. 
The upgrade cost and even the cost of 
your time in re-establishing all this Is 

What will make version 3.0 a totally 
necessary "must" for some serious 
users will be the new spread sheet 

Peter Davis t 

PRODUCT AppleWorksV3.0 

AUTHORS R J Lissner and 
Claris Corporation 
Enhanced by Alan Bird. Randy 
Brandt & Rob Rcnstrom 
PUBLISHERS Claris Corporation 

Distribution. Telephone:0256/ 

Bidinuthln Technologies Ltd 

Brent House 

212 Kenton Road 

Middlesex, HA3 8BT 

Teicphone:01/907/85 16 
(For V3 Bldmuthin are offering a 6 
month software support service at 

MGA Microsystems 



Kent. 1N26 2AR Telephone: 

0233/83571 or FAX 383561 

Holdens Computer Services 

The Mansions 

Chapel Lane 


Preston, PR4 5EB Telephone: 

0772/615512 or FAX 615919 


Upgrade £75.00 VAT and p&p 
New £170.00 plus VAT 


Keith Rookledge tells how .. 

Homo sapiens has achieved the abil- 
ity to communicate. Both verbally 
and through the computer ... 

So where to start? Well the hard 
ware is an obvious choice. Wetheryou 
have a II or a Mac you can utilise the 
electron to communicate with others. 
You will require a Modem and need to 
Join a network and in addition you will 
need some software. 

As 1 am a IIGS person I will be 
dealing with this aspect mainly but 
many of the observations relate to 
general matters applicable to Mac 
and indeed other computers. 

I have elected to utilise an Applied 
Engineering Datallnker. It comes 
complete with software and utilises 
1200 Baud. The current modem can 
work at 2400 Baud and this is most 
Important as the faster you can send 
the data the lower the cost, an impor- 
tant facit if you are not on a local call. 
The Data Linker has the additional 
advantage that It Is slot based so that 
you do not have another external box 
to contend with. 

Mac users have to use an external 
modem and details of a suitable unit 
are supplied by Applc2000 together 
with suitable software. 

The next aspect is to link Into a 
system. As all of you are aware 
Apple2000 runs its own board and in 
addition offers Telecom Gold at a 
reduced rate, through The Force 

In addition there are other systems 
available. One To One. Mercury 7500 
to mention but two and a plethora of 
systems In the States. 

Also, of course you can 'talk' di- 
rectly to another computer where 
comparability exists. 

For our own TABBS Sysop (That Is 
the SYstem OPerator) or Ewen to us. 
has made things easy. All one has to 
is to give one's name, address and 
password and you are online. 

With Telecom Gold the log on se- 
quence is more complex. We operate 
as a group and therefore have to ac- 
cess the system via our group ID 
reference. The system Is comprehen- 
sive and offers numerous facilities. 

For instance you can send a Fax. 
Sending a Fax from an Apple? Yes. 
comrns these days enable you to send 
and receive Telexes from your key 
board and In addition you can send 
(only) Faxes to other peoples Fax 

Linking Into a system obviously 
requires a phone line. If you have the 
current BT sockets its easy to link In. 
you merely purchase a two way 
adapter ana plug your phone into one 
socket and the line from your modem 
to the other. 

Mercury is an alternative to BT and 
Is much cheaper for long distnace 
Keith Rookledge « 

36 a s 


December 1989 

Contuinuedjrom Page 25 

SEGlass The menu help was removed after we did 

some user testing. The users we tested 
were confused by the help feature. After 
trying to help them with several versions 
of manual, we gave up and took it out. 

Question I understand that networking will be 

expanded In system 5.0 specifics. Is there 
any chance of TOPS for the GS Are there 
any benchmark speed tests against 4.0 
and 5.0 In AppleWorks GS? 

Loucks 5.0 supports AppleSharc from the 


JlmMensch No reason Tops could not write a version 
for the GS But Tops Is not an Apple 

Loucks You can have AShare volumes on the 

desktop as Icons... 

JlmMensch But. I think that capable since tops uses 
a protocol similar to our own AFP proto- 
cols for Appleshare 

SEGlass As to AWGS...we found that with system 

5.0 and the new version of AWGS you 
could load the fully configure system in 
35 seconds versus 4 minutes under 4.0. 

AFL TVacyP Please welcome Ray Montagne of the 
GSOS team! 

Montagne Howdyl 

AFL TVacyP Ray. I was reading comments you were 
sending.. .would you like to re-create 
them here all at once? 

Montagne Sure; The transfer rate on the floppy la 
Axed at 500kilobytes per second but 
system 3.2 was Interleaved at 4: 1 mean- 
ing it took 4 revolutions to read a single 
track. System 4.0 was Interleaved at 2: 1 
meaning It took 2 revolutions to read a 
single track, ystem 5.0 is Interleaved at 
an effective 1:1 on large reads and can 
read a single track In a single revolution. 
Next question Is from the Gibber.... 
I have a question about Express 
Loader.... What Is it and what does It do... 
I couldn't get an explanation an AFest 
Steve's got this one. hang on... 
Express load Is a new format for applica- 
tions. We designed It so that the applica- 
tions could be loaded from the disk faster 
than in the past. What we saw was that 
most applications were being read from 
the disk in small bits and pieces. But the 
OS 19 optimized to read large chunks at a 
single time. So we came up with a new file 
format that Is more a-tune to the OS and 
can be read faster. 400% of the Apple- 
Works GS speed up is from express load, 
the rest is from the faster disk driver. 
Hope this answers your question. 
Existing (■unexpressed") apps running 
under 5.0 won't automatically take ad- 
vantage of Express Load 

Next question is from Johnny Red. 
Will the new OS and the new toolbox help 
at all with the printing speed? 
The new toolbox will help speed up print- 
ing, but the biggest Improvement will be 
from the new Imagewriter driver on the 
5.0 disk. This driver uses extra memory 
when Its available to speed the printing 
process, fthe memory Is not available, the 
printing Is still a little faster because 
qulckdraw is faster. But this is not too 
notlcable while printing. 

AFLTracyP Thanks to Jim Mensch. Brian Loucks. 
Steve Glass and Ray Montagne for spend 
lng some time with us tonight talking 
about GSOS v5.01 i 



SEC lass 







imagine a label printing 
system for your dot-matrix 
printer that allows you to 
use almosi any size of cus- 
tom label, card or sheet to 
create a self-ad hesive 
design incorporating Print 
Shop-compatible fancy 
fonts, borders, mono gra- 
phics and even multicolour 
graphics on colour printers! (Colour printers allow you 
to have different colours for the borders, fonts and 

You can also merge information like mailing lists or 
product part details/stock numbers from AppleWorks 

The amazing product that allows you to do this on a 
l28K//ecGS is called "Labels. Labels. Labels", and it 
costs just £39.95 postfree. (Separate versions avail- 
able for//ec and IIGS, with IBM-PC to follow soon). 

To support this great package we have 3 add-on 

borders disks, 10 fonts disks. 23 mono graphics 

disks, and 4 multi-colour graphics disks, (each at 
e4.00 postfree). 




MGA SoftCat (0233) 83294/83571 


Open-Apple is Tom Wwshaars monthly newsletter for krvmrtRcigp- 
aWe Apple II users. Irs thin but packed tight with Apple II tore, humor. 
letters, tips, advice, and solutions to your problems. Compared to 
other Apple II pubkabons. Open Apple has the highest now idea 
par-'ssue ratio, the dearest writing, me tunnies: cartoons, the lonoest 
mctei. the besi warranty (all your money back It you're not saftned). 

and it takes, up the 1 

II cue #49 

All ol (he new Beagle Bros Timeout 
series ot AppleWorks enhancements are 
good. UltraMacros is incredible. But 
QutckspcH is a word of true genius. What 
makes It so good is Its user interface. 
After checking three dictionaries, it gives 

you a list of all words it could n r find. You 
can select which words to ignore, which 
to fix. which to aoci » your custom dictio- 
nary, and which io look .n In conteit for 
morp. ser the rebraury I98B Open- 
Apple \i*ty 4..Y 

From our fan mail: 

'Lee Kaesly directed questions and 
added his Input to a panel of Jour Apple II 
stalwarts.... A brief recounting of their 
answers may be of interest to many ot 

L). What magazine* are available/ 
A. WAP Journal. A*. AppleWorks Journal. 
Byte* CAII Apple. inCider. Open-Apple, 
nibble. (After WrV Journal Open-Apple 

was the unanimous favorite T 

Washington Apple Pi 
Washington D.f .. January, 1988. pagr 10 

Try two months free! 

Oer good one ome o*ty Try opoMppfc « ou> expense Cm out o* ptoto 
copy this coupon andmailfliouslo'if'Mtwo "Wt^ t*tf subsenpoon 

Ad eoc* M282 

F<« airaal worttwdt 

December 1989 




QI sec that System 6.0.4 has been 
released for the Macintosh. It Is 
now getting very confusing be- 
tween the Mac and the Hgs when- 
ever system numbers are referred 
to. Apple Insist that it is a System 
for the Hgs and not GSOS. Per- 
haps Apple might consider the 
poor customer once in a while and 
have some other kind of reference 

J Apple have now cured the bug 
that was introduced into Basic 
1.3 and Basic 1.4 has now been 
released. It is available from 
TABBS for downloading, and will 
appear on the next batch of Apple 
II library disks to be issued. 
Meanwhile there have been mixed 
feelings about System 5.0. It is 
very definitely an Improvement 
and drawing speed is quite dra- 
matically Improved where the 
Qulckdraw tools are used, but 
there are some applications that 
no longer want to run with it. You 
should keep a copy of System 4.0 
around and boot from that if you 
have problems. 

A suggestion to get round this 
problem is to install System 4.0. 
rename the System folders, and 
then install System 5.0. Prepare a 
small Basic program which will 
give you a choice of the two sys- 
tems. On selection the program 
should then rename the appropri- 
ate folders and do a cold Boot. 
This way you can have both sys- 
tems resident on your hard disk at 

Q Good heavens, we have come 
back to hard disks again! It is 
interesting that most of you who 
have taken up our offer for Cirtech 
Diamond disks have been Apple II 
owners. I am not sure why that 
should be. it may simply be that 
Macintosh owners are not aware 
of the quality of Cirtech products 

or that there is 
not the demand 
for extra hard 
disks for Macs. 
It is encourag- 
ing however 
that Apple II 
owners arc fit- 
ting hard drives, 
it makes an ex- 
cellent machine 
really sing and 
dance with a 
hard disk in- 

□ You will see 
from the article 
on Page 13 that at least one 
member has tried Ewen's route of 
'do It yourself hard disks. It was 
interesting to see that the first 
drive that BUI Mealey received was 
faulty. Seagate drives are reck- 
oned to be excellent drives, but 
Ewen tells me he had the same 
problem, and it was not till the 
second unit was delivered that he 
got it all going. 

For those who wish to contact 
Seagate directly, their address is 
as follows: 

Seagate Technology Ltd. 

Manson Place 

Kelvin Industrial Estate 

East Kilbride 


G75 OQW 

Tel: 0355 235951 

The Seagate interface manual is 
available from them and Is also 
available from RS Components for 
around £4.96 plus VAT. 
Q I earlier mentioned the Cirtech 
Diamond drive, Cirtech of course 
are better known for their expan- 
sion cards for the Apple II series. 
Cirtech cards using 32k DRam 
chips made before the summer of 
"87 have problems with the newer 
system software. At the time of 
writing Cirtech have no plans to 
support these software changes 
made by Apple. A solution is to get 
hold of an empty 1 meg AST 
SprintDisk card and swap the 
chips over. The bare AST card 
sells for around £24.95 and has 
no problems with the new system 
software on the Hgs. 
Q Many of you now know of the 
Hgs machines that have been ap- 
pearing on the secondhand mar- 
ket. These arc the result of a ta- 
chometer reading franchise that 
changed hands. Typically one of 

these secondhand systems will 
consist of a 256k Hgs (with new 
ROM), two 5.25 Apple drives, a 
printer card and a Monochrome 
monitor. All the various parts are 
usually 'as new* and prices are 
around £250-£300 for the pack- 
age. However most of you will 
want to fix the machine up to cope 
with GS/OS. To do this you will 
need to get a memory expansion 
card and a colour monitor. 

There are various cards avail- 
able for the memory expansion, 
from Apple's own one to the Ap- 
plied Engineering and the Cirtech 
card. If you intend fitting an accel- 
erator of some kind, check that 
the expansion card will work with 
your accelerator. 

The main expense will be the 
colour monitor of course. The 
video output of the Hgs actually 
appears on two sockets. There is 
the usual phono socket with line 
video output, but this is NTSC or 
US standard colour. You will get a 
black and white picture only on 
European monitors or televisions. 
However the RGB connector gives 
standard RGB output. Many of 
the newer television sets are now 
being fitted with a SCARTconnec- 
tor to interface with RGB and 
other devices. You will see the 
letter on Page 4 giving the actual 
pin connections. If you want to 
connect this way you may be 
interested In contacting Ron 
Gladwin at: 

UK Home Computers 

82 Churchward Avenue 



Tel: 0793 695034 (after 4pm) 

They provide an RGB/SCART 
connector for around £11, and a 
Thompson RGB colour monitor 
for the Atari with SCART connec- 
tor for around £179.95. This 
should workjust fine on the Hgs. 
□ One of our members contacted 
us at the Mac User show to say 
that he had Vol 1 No 1 of Mac 
Tutor surplus to requirements. 
This Is free to the first caller to 
contact him on 08=*fiff "4" " 
Q Having seen the Mac Portable at 
first hand, I am very impressed 
with the machine. I understand 
that it is now selling like hot cakes 
in the States. However it is an 
expensive beast at the moment. 
When it has dropped In price and 
filled itself up with a good working 

38 jfi B B M 


December 1989 

set of RAM. I will consider it 
as essential as the stan- 
dard fixed Mac worksta- 
tion. The screen is actually 
larger than a standard Mac 
screen, and is as easy to 
read In almost any light. 
The worst thing 1 found 
was trying to use the track- 
erball. This Is a real art to 
master, quite unlike the 
friendly mouse, J ust which 
fingers do you use! 
Q It has been quite a year 
so far. We started with the 
Mac II having turned Into a 
fix, and we finish with a 
Ilex, a IIcl and a portable 
Mac on the scene. The 
humble Mac II has been 
made redundant and ob- 
solete! How long till the Ilex 
bites the dust? I cant see it 
being bought when the IIcl 
is available in quantity. 
Apple are pushing the 
Mac architecture a long 
way from its humble be- 
ginnings with the 128k 
Mac and 400k drive. I sus- 
pect that In the wings they 
must be working on the 
successor to the Macin- 
tosh. This should take us 
forward for the next 5 
years o r so. Will it be a radi- 
cal departure from the 
Mac, or will they build in 
compatibility in the way 
the Hgs followed in the 
footsteps of the Apple II? 
□ Talking of the llgs. al- 
though we had a mother- 
board facelift this year, we 
still await the real Ilgst to 
be launched. This is the 
much awaited lOmhz, 400 
line resolution machine 
that we have talked about 
for some time now. Will It 
see the light of day next 
year perhaps? 
'J Rumour has it that Apple 
might hive off the Apple II 
line In the same way that It 
formed Claris to deal with 
marketing Apple software. 
The rumour also has it that 
St eve Wozniak will head up 
the team. This would be 
quite something. Woz 
would certainly let the llgs 
line develop Into the ad- 
vanced machine that the 
llgs ought to be! 

The Nibble r « 

The sparkling new storage solution - 

Diamond hard disks 

Diamond high capacity SCSI hard disk drives have been 
developed by Cirtech especially for the Mac and Apple 
II computers. 

These super slim, fast drives arc supplied ready formatted 
for immediate use and give you the top performance and 
value you've come to expect from Cirtech. Their stylish 
good looks in colour-keyed platinum grey prefectly 
complement your system. 

• Available in ?-2, 48 and 100 Megabyte sizes. 

* High performance drive system - 28 mS average access lime- 
*■ Dual SCSI connectors for simple daisy chaining of other SCSI 


* Supplied complete with fully shielded SCSI cable 

# Slimline case is fully screened for minimum radio interference 

* Has the same Footprint as the Mac SE and Plus 

• Whisper quiet diive system with very low power consumption 

Mac Versions: 

Connects directly to the SI bl 
poti on ihc Mat SE. Plus or II 
Supplied ready form Mini for 
instnm use 

Apple II Versions: 

Supplied pTc-formaucd and complete 
with a Cirtech SCSI imcrfacc 
nnihellGS, Hem 11+ Suppvii soft- 
ware included for up to four SCSI 
devices. Fully compatible with CSOS 
ProDOS. DOS 3 J, Pascal and CP/M. 

Diamond drives for flawless performance! 

32 Megabytes 48 Megabytes 100 Megabyte! 
Mac 1475.00 £545.00 £ 845 00 

■: II (iodudini SCSI inicrfaee) £520.00 £590,00 

(Prices quoted exclude VA1) 
Check your Apple 2000 Catalogue for details of special members offers 

CIRTECH IIJK) LTD. Currls Hood Industrial EatBlo. GALASHIELS 
Selkirkshire, TD1 2BP, Scotland Talaphona- (0896) 57790 

Tatos: 9312130256 (CI 01 MaHboxtt: 84:CPOO01 fTitocom Gc-WI AAH555 ISourctl 

December 1989 


B J 39 





1 MB TO 4MB 


Utilities & no's 

Acta Advantage (Uulimer includes OA version) 96 

After Dark (user deferable screen saver) 20 

Calculator CMStruclflf 2 (create DA caluuialuis) 54 
Top Honors (Design PostScript certificates) by 

Certificate Make* (Design bitmap certificates) 25 

Calendar Maker (customise calendars) 29 

Capture (screen image capture) 46 

Cop| II Mac (Utthup muteUft] software) 23 

Disk Express (speed up. untragment faro drives) . 44 

DtskQuickicataioQucslloppyandrarddiSCS) 32 

DrskToofsPln(9»sentialOA's) 39 

WsfcTop(uselulDAeoiiechon) 33. 

MM Plus (We and disc editor) 29. 

MAM Juggler (multiple DA'^ K lows) 44 

Gofer (search key words on multiple text files) 54. 

HFS Backup V3 (old faithful HD backup) 63. 

tryper DA (read HyperCard '"es trom a DA) 39 

Icoa it (oesiQn flexible icon menu bars and more) 49 

InltPlckorr (choose, startup lulls) 30 

MaclnUse (register lime spent on applications) 59 

Master Junior (Suitcase II rival) 59. 

MultlCHp (.multiple copies & pastes) 55 

MultlDiok (best hard disk partitioner) 44 

On Cue ( switch between' progs avotdmo finder) 39 

QutcKorys (macro maker, tirtv savef uliltry) . 69 

QuickDex (lightning last DA database, essential) 35 

Redux |ht»d backup program on the market) 59 

Retroeooct (most sophisticated archival backup) 150 

Screen Boe» (colour utility collection) 49 

Stepping Out 2isofmtebigsaeoieRlHiUt:f) BS 

Smart Alarms (new version UA reminder system) 55 

S.P.A.M.M.(solt*rtre maths co-wocessoO 57 

Sultcast 2 imarage 100's DA's & fonts) 49 

SuperSpool (best ImagcWnter spootef) - 59 

SupertaserSpool I Laser & ImaoeWriter spooler) 39 

SAM (Symantec's antivirus utility) 65 

SUM II (essential utilities plus guard against crashes) ... 69. 

Tempo II (the best macro makH.liniesaver) 65. 

Thunder II (best spelling criecket) 59 

Vhoiiuestvirusttacer&erdd'calorofall) 59. 


Acta Advantage lOutimer includes OA version) 95 

Expressionist 2 (OA equation processor) 79 

MindWrrte iama*tng oulhner WP) 1 55 

Mac Wr lie II (maior update handles graphics) 155. 

Microsoft Word 4 (the new standard) 195 

Wsus (fullest leaturedWP with graphics) 220 

Thunder II (the best spelling checker around) 59 

Vantage (excellent DA WPlhat was MacSink) 60. 

■JaUflerti (220,000 word DA Thesaurus) .... 35 

LstraSiueUo (loot manipulation DTP) 385 

MacKern (build yourown tables lor any font) 125 

PeueMet « 3 (the most intuitive) 425 

PageMaker Studio (collection ol templates) 89 

Publish ft (most features, exceptional value) . 250 

Quark Xpress 2.1 (the mnsl powerful ) 495 

Quark Style itniniXpfess with templates) ' 235 

RBadi.Set.Go 4,5 ■{the second most features) 399 

Smart Art 1,2,3(te« manipulation DA) each99. 


Canvas 2 (amazing power, colour pami & draw) 165 

Comic Strip Factory (create your own comics) 40 

TTieCiiratwiyiapliiixU^tww AoigHmsw) .85 

Claris CAO (state ot the art CAD) 475 

Desk Paint (full paint/draw progs in a DA) ... 75 

Dreams (new generaiion CAO) 249 art and text) 365. 

Illustrator 68 (auto (race, colour, blending...) 415. 

huge Studio (grey scale image control ) 415 

MacDraft (biggest selling drafting tool ) 1 75 

MacDraw II (Ihr ritaw piixjranr) . 275 

MacroMInd Director (state ot art animation) . . 450. 
Pixel Paiert 2 Hop class colour paint) 235 

Pixel Point Professional (32 to sta* of (heart) 365 

StroomlliM (Adobe autotraccr) 299. 

SopfrOliHi 2 (uve and transfer any file or image) 69 
Super 3D vor 2 (colour Mac II support) 299 

Studio 1 (amazing B&W animation and pamting) ?5 

Studio 6 ( new odour pairrj program) _ 255 

VldeoWorks II (animated presentation) . 210 

Clip Art 

Visual Arts (10 MegaBytes ot PostScript Art) 150 

MacAtlas EPSF (high quality scalable maps) 115 

WetPamtithebestOitmapanbymiies) each 49 

"Classic Clip Art". "Animal Kingdom', 'Printers Helper*. 
"Old Earth Almanac". 'Industrial Revolution'. "For Publish- 
ing'. 'Special Occasions", "island Lite". "People*. 


Lasertafle (PostScript language editor) „ 
Programmers Online Companion 
Quick Basic | Microsoft's version) 
Think's C 4 (with source level debugger) 

If you would like to receive our catalogue and 
monthly newsletter please fill in the form below 
and return it to us. Alternatively save the postage 
and simply ring us with your details. 

Please add me to the MacLine mailing list 




Think's Pascal (top rated) /5 

TMOHisuMrbdeouoginfllool) 96. 

True Basic (by the original author ot Basic) . 65 

VIP 2.S(programmaBiellow charts) 89 

"Basic 5 line fastest Basic available) 125 


101 Macros Excel I diverse and useful macros) 49 

Cricket Graph (top graphing tool) ..120. 

Cricket Presents (presentation tool) 275 

Extend uudlily simulation urogram) 320 

MacMoney 3 UK (home, small business accounts) /5. 

MacProlect H (superior new version) 3?5 

Microsoft Excel (ihe power sp'eadsheel) 195 

Microsoft Works 2 (5 integrated programs) 159. 

Microsoft Office (Excel. Word & PowerPoint In one) 425. 
More II fanning, wrilmg, desk lop presentation) 225 

Persuasion (Aldus' lop end presentation tool) 365. 

PowerPoint (desk lop presentation program) 195 

SmartForms Designer (Clans' forms package) . 275 

True Forms Set Up (forms design & layout) -165. 

True Fonns Fill Oil! (forms II II out) 215 

Visual Business No. 5 (business graphics) 299 

Wall St. invrralwt&ro^ 395, 

Wing* i cest spreadsfieet available) 245 


CJLT (contacts, activities, time-sales aid) 235. 

DAtabaso (new full featured DA database) 75 

Double Helli ll (easiest major database) 350. 

FileMaker It (versatile and powerful, superb) ... 196 
FoxbasetMac 2 (now even faster than before) 390 

Far base* Multiuser (Network version) _ 550 

Omnis Accountlnj (For all 5< modules) 395 

Omnis 3 Plea mow tne best value by far) 175 

Omnls 5 (last & PC compatible) . 425 

Panorama [Spreadsheet like database) 225 

OuickDei (essential lightning last DA database) 35 


DTP Advlsw (lips aid a0VH» on layouts) 59 

Icon Factory (2000 icons pfus editor) ... 35 

HvperAnimetoc (sync sound and animation) .. .115 
HyperComposer (create sound & music saipts) 45 

HyperBible (King James version on a slack) ISO 

HyperTutoe (stack teaching stack) 39. 

Plos (lakes HyperCard into a new dimension) 1 19 

Reports! (reports designer plus improved printing) 75. 

Serial Export (HyperTalk in a stack) 49 

Silver Screen (movreoaiaoase. oscarsjetors etc) 49. 

SuperCard (colour HyperCard & more) 125 


Adobe Fonts ( lull range at discount prices) call 

Adobe Type Manafor (outline screen fonts) 72 

Art Importer (turns PostScript into fonts) . 05 

Btatto to display t«e^ 45. 

Fancy Foots (b4 new versions ot built in lonts) -15 

Fraction Fonts (m Helvetica & Times laces) ... . 45 
Fonlastic Plus 2 (tidmaii lonl cifcBor/editor) 65 

Fontographer 3 (laser font creator/editor) 295 

Fluent Fonts (2 excellent discs of bitmap fonts) 36- 
Fluent Laser Fonts (quality Laser fonts.) 59 

Morjotype Fonts (full rangeat discount prices) Call. 

*l Class Fonts (2 disc sets ot good fonts) each 49. 

The Originals'. "The Stylish*. "The Giants* 
and now 'The Triples" useful tor LQ and IISC printers 


MacLInk Ptoa (port PC-Mac with codes) 135 

Macllnk PlirsTraitslatDrt(4Sfy3tV1iiiA10e) HO 

Soft PC Mac OS (PC emulation in sottwaie) 250 

Tops Flashcard ( LocafTaik Net card tor PCs) 1 1 

Tops DOS IPC software for TOPs netwnrk) 95> 





DaynaTalk i rival Local Talkacceler-ator) 125 

InlerFai (tax A modem in one Brilliant) XVI 

Red Ryder 10 (the pro's choice) 5$ 

Timbuktu 3.0 (operate networked Macs) 9j 

Timbuktu Rmnoti (npprate (pmnle Mars) 19ft 

TOPS (tow cosl and eticient nttworking) . . 120. 

TOPS Flashboi (speed up LocaJTalk 3 times) .. .. too 

VTcorn 3 (''iwidiiestcomms software) MO 

WS3000 Modem (300 S120Q baud) 235 

WS3000 V22 BIS (up lo 2400 baud) 335 


ConcertwaiB +(B tOice composer, player) 49 

ConcBrttwn + MlDHnewieatures) 99 

Jam Session I play like a professional) 39 

Super Studio Session (now works on Mac II) 69 

HyperCompostt (sound and music scriptsl) .. 45 


Cables (nog us with you requirt-ncnts) call. 

Aaet (AppieTalk set at hall the piece) 25. 

IraagBWriter Ribbons (lo De Of not to be) 3/5 

MacNet fPhoncNet set al halt the price) 19 

Antl Blare Scroea {to fit SE or Plus) 37 

SIMMS i 'MD low profile 1W nanoseconds) % 

Business Laser Printer (as oood as Apple's ) . 2100 
Personal Laser Printer (nun noslscnpl .Whlpi) 1795 

HP DeskWrHar(300dp< mkjel printer) 750. 

HP PaintJet (low cost colour printing) 850 

MacPlus Mouse (optical mouse, smootn-) — _55. 

SES II Mouse (runner, never gets dirty) 60 

MacRecofder N (or illiant audio digiliser) 165. 

Mac II Stand i vertical floor stand with long cables) 69. 

Joystick MacPlus (something you've ) 45 

Joystick Mac SE or II (..always wanted) 59 

Kurta Graphics Tablet (precise Draw/CAD mpul) ..2H> 

Mac carry case (high quality bags lor S£ or Plus) SS. 

Toolkit (open your Plus o? SF safely) IS 

Radius Accelerator (lor Plus or SE) 545. 

Irwin 68000 1 6Mhz (double speed Mac St") 199 

Irwin 68020 1 6Mhl (a Mac II (na SE) 399. 

Irwin 68020 20Mru (faster than a Mac II) 400 

Irwin 68020 25Mlu IjMfl Idbler still) 750. 

m MacLite i por'aoie wiin MacLink) 299. 


ScanM8Bi^pdnei0 4-wi«32riainones) . 206 

Thunderscan (amazing Quality for low cost) 109 

Read- It 2 (OCR software lor most starmefs) ?fts 

Read It Personal (lorScanMan & Thunderscan) 115. 


fc^c Oaaao (interactive HyperCard story) 47. 

KM* Ttate (5 tun games tor 3 to r year olds) 29. 

Tin Manhole (suitable from ages 4 84) 35. 

Number Maze I learn lo count and have tun) 29. 

Puppy Low (game tor 3 to 5 years (Plus only); . 19 

Reader Rabbit (good reading trainer) 39 

Talking Tiles <! trading training wirh voice) 35 

Where in World Is CSOlego? pOtgeograpny advtr) 32 
Whore In Europe is CSOIego? (10«geooraphy advtr) 35 


DTP Adviser (tips and advice on layouts) 59 

PageMaker College (tutorial lessons) 160. 

Typing Tutor TV (excellent way to learn) 39 

Learn FileMaker It _ ._ _ each39. 

(4 modules to* FileMaker ii) an 4 lor £140 

Learn M each 39 

(4 modules for Illustrator 88) all 4 tut £140 

MacTaadi (specify Mac and it HD or floppy) each 39 

(2 modules Macintosh training) both lor £72 


4th Dimension 69. 

Microsoft Excel 69. 

Microsoft Word 4 69. 

PageMaker 3.0 69. 

Quark Xpress 2.0 69. 

HyperCard 69. 

TUTORLANO Teach Yourself guides are the best 
and most educationally sound training courses 
we have ever seen. Learn your software step-by- 
step through example The 160 lo 200 page 
tutorials have a consistent layout, giving a com- 
plete explanation ol each concept (one per page) 
followed by cleat, practical instructions. Dis- 
pense with manuals, books and expensive live 
training. You and your start will quickly under- 
stand even the most complex ol Mac software. 

Hard drives 

Western Digital 20Mb 325 

Western Digital 45Mb 430 

minlQIsk 45Mb 
mlniQisk 70Mb 
minlQIsk IDdMb 

Rodlme 45Mb 
Rodime 60Mb 
Rodlme 100Mb 
Rodime 140Mb 


Apple Macintosh Book 1995 

Or. Macintosh 1795 

Inside Mac Vols 1,2, 4, 5 each 23 95 

Inside Mac Vol 3 1926 

Inside Mac X M 8.95 

Macintosh Family Hardware R«f 23.35 

Macintosh Bible 2nd Edition 24.95 

Macintosh Font Book .... 1980 

Macintosh Revealed Vols 1 A 2 cach23.05 

MaclAKs 1995 

Understanding Hard Disk Managtment 21 .95 

Complete HyperCard Handbook 27.45 

Guide to Petals 3 7145 

Excel Advanced User Guide 1/95 

Making Art on the Mac N 20.95 

Mastering Excel 2295 

Mastering Adobe Illustrator St 2196 

Using Aldus PageMaker 3.0 22 95 

Design lor DTP 1250 

Quark XPrcss Companion 1250 

Using Microsoft Word 4 1995 

Flying in PageMaker 695 

Alternate Reality isp-ace rote playing tamasy) 27. 

Arfcanoid •■;] >" v: game of Breakout) 27 

Balance nt Power | Jse strategy in keen peace) 74 

Balance ol Power 1990 '.Geopolitics, strategy! 2-1 
Bridge ">* nevce to advanced player levels) 25 

ChessMaster 2000 (Oest Chess game) .. 25 

CkaefcYeagar Flight Traittar (colour!) .. . 25. 

CrvstalQuest2(B'i!ainStavrwrileoame) ... 29. 

Crystal Quest with Critter Editor 49. 

Colony CBesI game W MacWcwId) 24 

De|e Vu (private detective adventure) . . 24 

Deja vu II (toy m i as vegasi 24 

Flight Simulate* (the tamous Microsoft one) 30. 

4th end Inches (American Football) 29. 

Ferrari Graed Prii formula one simulation) 36, 

Gauntlei (colour arcade game) 32 

Hacker H t crack inecode. save Ihe world) 75 

Hunt For Red October (suD simulation) .. 32 

Life ead Death (Perform actual operations Hi detail) 24. 
MacCetf (superb graphics, highly realistic: ) 35. 

MacGolt Colour ( and highly addictive) 56 

MacCourses (extra courses tor MacGoll) 25 

Mean 18 (new colour Goil game) 29 

MetTrek (nehvort space wartare) 42 

Orbitar 'space shuttle simulation) 29. 

Pattoe vs Roemel (strategy war game) 19 

Plnball (also -ndudes construction kit) 15 

P31 Mustang (last & hirious flying) 39 

PT 109 (patrol boal graphic simulation) 29. 

QuarterStaff (role playing with colour) 33. 

Road Racer (lerritic nigh speed action) 45 

Riser. For The Start (galactic war gome) ,,. ,..29, 

Shutfleouck (air table ice hockey) 29 

Sim City (design and run a city) 32. 

Sin City Coloay (design and run a city) 52 

Solltalro(9difterefitpatiefv^games) 24 

Solitaire Coioer (Mautiiut graphics) 24. 

Sub Battle (command a WWII submarine) 34 

Sab tattle Colour 1 'most realistic) .34. 

Super Haeg Oo (motorcycle racing) 29. 

Tetrts (award winning Soviet game) 24 

Teirls Colour (Dram leasingty addictive) -...27. 

Universal Military Simulator (30 mirgaroc) 35. 
Wiaedryjgrapfirc adventure) 29. 

Znek (classic adventure now in colour) jy 

Works on Mac II 

always rlw:k wild us Inr rjnn[wlilnlily as many games 
do not work on Mac lis, x's and St 30's 


Ancient Ail of War (quality war simulation) 29 

Ancient Art of War at Sea (salty war simulation) 29. 


Special very low Education prices are available on the fol- 
lowing proofs lo authorised educational establishments 
only witn official purchase orders II you are in doubt as to 
whether you Quality lor discounts please call us before 
placing an order 

Excel Word Write. PowerPoint File. QuickBASIC 


SmartFones Designer, MacProfect, MacDraw II, 
MacPaint II. FileMaker II. MacWrlle II. CAD. 


Illustrator 88, Image Studio, LetraStudlo, 
ReadySetGo 4.5. Thinks C. Thinks Pascal. 
Hisus. More II, Omnts 5, Plus, Read It, Redux 
SuperCard, Write Now, Virei 
Ftve and Ten pack versions also available on some products 

Items in red are our new products this month 


'Credit cards will not be charged until the order is shipped 
'If a partial order is despatched, the balance is posled 

fi« ul additional Dustaue thargev 
' AH Goods are sent oy Recorded Firsi Class Mail 
'Courier services are available. 
'Detective software is replaced immediately. 
'Refunds mil ontv be given on unopened packages that 

are relumed within 7 nays ol receipt 
* Price* are correct at time ol going to press 





'To order all Monday - rnday. 9.30 to S.30. 
'Add E? 50 pei older lui Postage & Packaging 

(€5. 00 on orders over (a SO lor Courier delivery) 
"Add VAT to the total price, except on books. 
'Payment <s by credit card, cheque or money order 
'Government depls. Educational establishments, and PLC 

companies are welcome la purchase wirh an otticui nrder 
'international orders accepted with credit card only. 

Postage added at cost 


Norah Arno ld looks at three letters 
received by Apple2000. 

Letter from Pleasant™ Graphic 

As a result of our review of Her- 
aldry III, the following letter was 
received at the P.O.Box from 
Pleasant™ Graphic Ware, P. O. 
Box 506, Pleasant Hill, Oregon 

Thankyou for your letter of 13 
August 1989 and the enclosed 
review of our Heraldry 111 disk. We 
are pleased to have had such a 
favourable review. Perhaps your 
members would be interested in 
some of our decisions regarding 
creation of the disk. 

We expected that heraldry in 
this country would be of particu- 
lar interest to genealogists, fan- 
tasy game players and graphic de- 
signers. We were correct in our 
supposition, but also found that 
there are many heraldry buffs 
who study the subject simply as a 
hobby. These four groups became 
our customers. For our purposes, 
in this country only the graphic 
designers may be considered pro- 
fessional users of the art of her- 
aldry, Heraldry is usually a sub- 
ject of casual or hobbyist (as 
opposed to official? sanctioned?) 
interest in this country, and to 
date almost all of our market is 

Most Macintosh owners here 
purchased their computers when 
Apple included MacPaint as part 
of the purchase price, and they 
are familiar with its use and with 
the compatible FullPaint and 
SuperPaint which soon followed. 
Relatively few Macintosh owners 
then used its graphics capabili- 
ties professionally. Now, those 
who do require more sophisti- 
cated software such as Illustrator. 

When I began the project, all 
clip-art disks were based on 
MacPaint. Even when Illustrator 

became available (at mid-design 
stage). MacPaint seemed more 
logical, because all of the disk 
capacity could be devoted to im- 
ages. I did not have to include 
MacPaint itself on the disk be- 
cause most Macintosh owners 
already had it, whereas most did 
not have Illustrator or other pro- 
grams like it. Furthermore, in- 
cluding the Illustrator application 
would have required at least one 
additional disk in the package 
and a licensing agreement with 

I agree completely that 
MacPaint does not do Justice to 
infricate heraldic images. My ob- 
ject was to include as many as 
possible, to create a means for 
people to learn about the rules 
and forms of heraldry and to ex- 
periment with heraldic design. Tn 
fact I was surprised at the amount 
of detail obtainable even in 

I assumed that professionals 
would use their Paint/Heraldry 
creations as a basis for more 
elaborate PICT designs. From the 
responses we have had, I was 
correct in the above broad as- 
sumptions. A graphic artist re- 
ported that she got fairly satisfac- 
tory enlargements by using 
SuperPaint. and a Canadian pur- 
chaser who owns a trophy pro- 
duction company obtained the 
same result using MacPaint II. 
Both methods required some 
clean-up (known locally as "pick- 
ing pixels"). Printing on a laser 
printer produces smoother (and I 
do emphasise the comparative 
adjective) curves even in Paint 
format, and I am including our 
brochure to illustrate this. 

Regarding the lack of crests, 
supporters and blazons, this was 
a question of disk capacity. The 
finished disk was almost as much 

a process of selection as of crea- 
tion. As you pointed out. includ- 
ing everything on the subject of 
heraldry is "probably an impos- 
sible task," barring the use of 
multiple disks at prohibiUve cost. 
Of our anticipated North Ameri- 
can market, only the heraldry 
buffs know (or care) about bla- 
zons, and they write their own 
using the voluminous literature 
on the subject. The other buyers 
simply want the images and the 
basic rules for the shields. Her- 
aldry and Heraldry II did not have 
enough disk capacity for any 
examples of supporters, crests, 
and mottoes. I included them on 
Heraldry III because integration of 
the two disks reduced the com- 
bined number of documents 
(each of which takes 2K without 
images) and opened up additional 
disk capacity. 

We see indications in Macintosh 
publications that software to 
convert images from Paint format 
to PICT will soon be available. For 
this reason we have not begun 
conversion from Paint to PICT. 
PICT experts will make their own 
conversions, and Paint-format 
users won't necessarily have the 
PICT software or even the RAM to 
use it. 

We hope the above account will 
explain the content of our three 
disks, even though it will not sat- 
isfy your objections. We have had 
limited response from purchasers 
and do not know what uses they 
make of the disks, although sales 
of the supplementary Heraldry II 
indicated saUsfaction with Her- 

Thank you again for your letter 
and for the review. If we can an- 
swer further questions, please let 
us know. 
Ann Steffenson 
Pleasant™ Graphic Ware. 

Help with MacinTalk 

Can any member help the writer 
of this letter? 

17 Cedar Court. 
Somerset Road, 
London SW19 5HU 

Dear Apple2000 

Could anybody help me to use 
MacinTalk in Pascal programs? 
Owner of a Macintosh Plus. I 

spend my spare time playing 

42 B M 


December 1989 

around with programming in 
Pascal (at a very basic level). I use 
LightSpeed Pascal Version 2 and 
can And nowhere a hint on how to 
program to have my Mac speak- 

1 use often HyperMacinTalk to 
have the Mac speak under Hyper- 
Card and its great. 

Jean-Marie Chouillet 
Membership N° 343 1 

Multlflnder Compatibility. 

The following letter was sent to 
the sysop of TABB9. the 
Apple2O00 electronic bulletin 

First may I say how sorry I am for 
the delay in finally sending this 
little essay on the tribulations I 
have encountered whilst using 
my Mac II. Multiflnder and Red 
Ryder. I hope the following comes 
in handy when you come to start 
using your Mac II in similar cir- 

System Information 
First as a basis of this review of 
Multlflnder compatibility I have 
listed below the system I am using 
at present. 

Mac II with 5 Mbyte of RAM and 
Colour Monitor (256 colour) and 
internal 65 Mbyte Qisk hard disc 

Finder : 6. 1 

System : 6.0 

Multlflnder : 6.0 

I know that there have been 
many 'reported bugs* in the sys- 
tem 6.0 software but I have now 
knowledge of them. The problems 
I h ave listed below may or may not 
be known to you. 

Red Ryder Version 9.4 

As you know I have had many 
problems with Red Ryder whilst 
using your Bulletin Board, many 
thanks again for your assistance. 
Whilst using the usual communi- 
cating medium of receiving mes- 
sages/mail and sending the same 
Red Ryder performs faultlessly. 
However when trying to download 
files (after setting the protocol to 
X-Modem) the programme expires 
with " Red I^der unexpectedly 
quit" error message. Occasionally 
the system will 'bomb" requiring a 

These errors do not appear 
when using Red P^dcr under the 
Finder only if Multlflnder dis- 
abled. 1 have successfully down- 

loaded many files from the Bulle- 
tin Board using this combination. 
One other word of warning. I sus- 
pect that using Red Ryder with the 
Colour option set to more than 2 
bytes can also cause the same 
problems even when working In 
the Finder. I have not investi- 
gated the permutations 
further as I do not wish to 
send my telephone bill to 
start soaring any 
higher! I have a combi- 
nation which now relia- 
bly works and I intend 
to stick with it 
for the time 


I know that 
the latest ver- 
sion of Red 
I^der is 10 
and 1 intend 
to register 
when I make 
a business 
trip to the 

States later this month. It ismuch 
easier to send a money order from 
a US post office than try to get my 
bank to do some kind of credit 

RAM Discs 

There are two ram discs to my 
knowledge in the user group's 
library. I have tried to use RAM+ 
on my system but it only caused 
MacroMaker to bomb with the 
message "Bit map damaged" (if 
my memory serves me correctly). 
This was not fatal as by simply re- 
copying the files restored the 
status quo. 


This amusing little piece of non- 
Sense which throws up an ani- 
mated face on the screen and says 
silly things can lockyour system ! . 
It is designed to operate under 
Mu ltifinder but when I went to the 
control panel to increase the vol- 
ume my machine locked up !. The 
only way out was to reset the Mac 
using the side button. 

Other Software 

Of the other software I use I can 
not report any difficulties except 
where noted 

HyperCard 1.2.2 

The only problem I have encoun- 
tered Is if you are editing a 
script with the control 
panel monitors section 
set to other than 2 bits. 
In this combination 
when editing scripts 
with the HyperCard 
background selected, 
using cut and paste, 
large blocks are se- 
lected even though you 
might be trying to se- 
lect a single letter or 
word. This selected block 
cannot be dropped and I 
have found the only way 
out is to exit the script win- 
dow by using the "ENTER" 
key as the mo use/ pointer 
has no effect on the buttons 
at the bottom of the window. 
Resetting the Monitors sec- 
tion of the control panel to 2 
bit will remove this prob- 
lem. Note that the colour/ 
black & white option in 
the same section of the 
control panel has no ef- 
fect on the problem. 


This programme is so far totally 
robust, but then I have not been 
using It for that long and have not 
started scripting yet. 

Mac Write v 4.6 

No problems so far with Multlfln- 
der except on large files I have had 
it lock up on me twice, something 
I think to do with the mouse. 

Chuck Ycager's Advanced 

Flight Trainer 

This was not designed for Multi- 
finder use but I have not experi- 
enced major problems except 
when switching between pro- 
grammes the sound can become 
disabled. Not a great problem as 
the keyboard command "N" will 
activate it again. 
That ends my discussion of the 
current state of the problems I 
have encountered so far with my 
Mac after a years use. I hope it will 
be of some assistance to you. 
Mike Dawson 

(I hope you like the horse, Linda) 4 

December 1989 



Omnis 5 

A r eview of this latest version of a 
favourite databse, by Bill Pearce 

which operates in exactly the 
same way as the earlier HelpLine 
and still forgets to reset the Mouse 
cursor after a prompted Save. It 
had to be renamed to avoid over- 
writing your previous Help file. To 
my mind, the best help of all is in 
the form of an example pro- 
gram'Documentation'. which 
gives access, in the way only a 
database can, to documentation 
that is more explicit even than the 
printed manual. It always sur- 
prised me that this was not done 
in earlier versions. 


Omnis 5 

OHMS Omnis has 

taken a quan- 
tum leap for- 
ward with ver- 
sion 5. I was 
expecting to 
find a few extra 
bits of Jiggeiy 
pokery here 
and there. 
Nothing could 
be further from 
Application file won thc truth. 

There are three 





Data File icon 

sizable manu- 
als plus the 
usual pocket 
guide. This last is conven- 
iently in 'Fllofax' format. 
There is the Programmers 
Reference, the Application 
Designers Handbook, and 
Getting Started. Databases 
are notoriously difficult to ex- 
plain — you need to know so 
much before you can under- 
stand anything. Blyth are to 
be congratulated on the improved 
manual presentation. These 
manuals are easier to navigate 
than the earlier versions, though 
the earlier spiral binding was 
h andier than the new clumsy ring 
folders. The 'Getting Started* 
avoids all the needless repetition 

that can make documentation r 
so annoying to read. I suspect 
the real reason why people 
avoid reading Macintosh 
manuals is because they are 
tired of reading how to switch 
on. insert a disk and move a 

'Getting Started* opens with 
the words 'G. S. should be the 
first manual to be read by a be- 
ginner or a first Lime user of 
Omnis*. Heartened by these 
words I ignored the manual and 
plunged in the deep end. In a 
remarkably short time I was 
completely up the creek without a 
paddle. Then I devoured G.S. 







(\-NBMI _ 



f flQ0RfSS2 

P_TOtUN | 

p_cbof 1 

p_cnuNTv 1 


* flit COII Ovilgn CimwiOi Modify rntiw 

mimi nnniur 

■ Liner nsciDini looj 
t TmunotaraoctiuvLAMi 
c ui w ecnuaraifWfcmcsmi 


1 Ttft imwrx air a »;it: mi»*. paiabttii 

from cover to cover and wished 
there was more, lots more. Omnis 
5 is powerful. With power comes 
responsibility. You are given 
rather full control of menus, even 
the standard menus (install, 
remove, disable, enable, and 
more), considerable control of 
windows (type. size, go 
away, clicks behind 
1 etc.). It would be re- 
markably easy to pro- 
gram yourself into a 
dead end with no 
means of quitting ex- 
cept to switch off the 

SUU on the topic of 
getting information 
about Omnis, there is 
the Omnis D.A.. re- 
named Omnis 5 Help, 

There is still an Omnis Express, 
an ingenious quick-start system 
that I have always considered 
superfluous. First you must learn 
how to use it, then how to move 
your work into the full 
Omnis. It's rather like the ill- 
fated Initial Teaching Alpha- 
bet — first you learn how not 
to read then you learn how to 
read properly. 

The example programs 
demonstrate something of 
the new power of Omnis. The 
'Welcome to Omnis 5' pro- 
gram is so like HyperCard 
you could imagine you were in Hy- 
perCard. Even the simple tutorial 
program demonstrates a tech- 
nique that was not possible in 
earlier versions (I had spent many 
hours trying to do it), that is, to 
create a scrolling text box. The 
nearest you could get was a 
scrolling line editor. 



Ul II Horn Jamas 


Meredith Andrew 







44 S M 


December 1989 

Much confusion arises on ac- 
count of the hierarchical flic con- 
nections that Omnis can generate 
automatically. There is no dllli- 
culty In establishing any file rela- 
tionship you wish, or manipulat- 
ing subsets of files and so on. 
Under some circumstances the 
automatic connection can impose 
a straight] acket and should be 
used only if It Is appropriate. In 
the Catalogue example illus- 
trated, each book title is con- 
nected to one author and one 
publisher. When the file formats 

* fill Edit Welcome 


Click here 
to uleui laal mlnuie 
tn-anget and l rraia 




isili iii'moi 




r.Bduii Catnlgtjue 

tnample fl o pllf tlqnt Ct/ck for tofw 

were defined, the TITLES file was 
stipulated as connected to the 
AUTHORS file and to the 
PUBLISHERS file. Whenever a 
new title is inserted. Omnis looks 
to sec which author and which 
publisher are currently In mem- 
ory and the link is forged. When- 
ever that title Is found, the author 
and publisher are automatically 
found. If howeveryou had not told 
Omnis to connect the files, you 
would need to create the link 
yourself and ask Omnis to find 
the appropriate records. The hier- 
archical link is only a subset of 
the possible links, and is not 
always the best answer. 

Designing a file format is much 
as it always was. with the addition 
of the picture field type. Maxi- 
mum string length must be stated 
but is no longer stored as a fixed 
length (hence more compact stor- 
age). Regrettably with the date 
type Blyth have gone more deeply 
into the quagmire. There are now 
three date types. 1900-1999, 
1980-2079 and 2000-2099. Their 
claim that calculations across the 
types are valid is not tme. When 
there were only two types, you 
could easily calculate that anyone 
whose age appeared to be less 
than zero was probably 1 00 years 

older than appeared. Centenari- 
ans were not allowed to be bom at 
all. What will happen now 1 dread 
to think. 

Anyone upgrading from version 
3 to version 5 has much re- 
learning to do. Think of it as being 
promoted from point duty down a 
cul-de-sac to air trafllc control at 
Heathrow. Although many of the 
old techniques will work, they all 
need to be tested and verified. A 
calculation no longer affects the 
flag automatically. Forget what 
you learned about the array and 
learn to manipulate lists instead. 
H A procedure (is but 
old sequence writ 
large) can now call 
itself. I always got 
'too many nested 
when I tried this in 
earlier versions. A 
file format that has 
been used may 
now be deleted 
with impunity. The 
simplest way to 
spot all the differ- 
ences is to start 
from square one 

Much of the old infrastucture Is 
there in a new guise. What is a re- 
versible block? It is the old 'Re- 
store current record at end of 
sequence': it may be slightly more 
flexible in that it obviates the need 
to write the reversible block as a 
separate sequence; but you must 
wait till the end of the procedure 
for the reversal to take effect — so 
what you gained on the swings 
you lose on the roundabout. A 
reversible block In efTect takes a 
snapshot of things as they are 
now, and re-establishes the 
status quo in so far as that is 
possible, at the end of the current 



Report 3 «aon 


'.■'■ 1 










1 1 


Rouaftd nc tog k 



TV Repon to I tor 

procedure, or when the window 
closes. If the block was defined in 
the open window procedure. 

Perhaps the most obvious en- 
hancements are the picture field; 
the draw type graphic tools avail- 
able for designing backgrounds 
for data entry screens and re- 
ports; availability of fonts, styles 
and colours for all screens. Omnis 
connectivity was always good. 
Version 3.3 had an SQL interface: 
version 5 has a HyperCard Inter- 
face. Both are well documented in 
the 'Application Designers' Hand- 
book'. Among the file types that 
can be exported is a new Omnis 
data transfer type, presumably to 
be recognised by DOS versions of 
Omnis. Omnis data transfer in- 
cludes pictures and text fields up 
to 32K long that can include con- 
trol characters. Other new types 
are Lotus WKS and dBase. The 
graphic type is discontinued. 
Each type is fully described in the 
manual. Pictures can even be 
passed to the PC by declaring 
them to be 'shared', which I take 
to mean bit -mapped. 

Carried away by the picture 
possibilities. I designed three 
'About' procedures. One simply 

HOPyi GflTfllVtUE 

•g pi Catalogue 

frw*9 CtHftfcSfcf 

One jUc u| Authors 
5pS One jiU oj PubCUhcn 

£E£m mSSoh «* ^*- fife oj book tttfet 

, r ,.,.„,^. r „,.^.,.^, ,„, „..«.,„., ,„„ .^, 

imported a picture from the Clip- 
board as a picture object and 
hence is not lost if a new datafile 


toto.| --.en-' 







is started. The second imports 
one picture into a picture field. 
creating one record, and displays 
that record in a series of windows 
of different sizes: not a very effec- 



ttvc animation. Hie third Imports 
seven pictures into a picture field, 
creating seven records: Display- 
ing these records In rapid succes- 
sion gives some semblance of 
animation. The disadvantage of 
methods 2 and 3 is that these 
records will be lost if a new dat- 
aflle is opened. 

iDl Field and function names = 






m i d< 

There are many more functions 
and many more temporary vari- 

ID! Field and function names 










Func t i ons ^ 




: \\\\: 


: :■: 


■ ■ ■■ 


. ... 












.'. : . : 










■; . 


■ ::-i 



. : . : .' 




ables. I did suspect Blyth were 
playing the numbers game here. 
For instance, a whole new series 
of variables report your 
every move during "Enter 
data' mode and appear to 
replicate the EDWC vari- 
ables, which are still there. 
If they serve a different 
purpose, 1 have 
yet to fathom it. 
Could it be that 
some of the 
plethora is due to 
the new compati- 
bility with the 
'other side*? Yes, 
the claim is that this 
version is fully compat- 
ible both in coding and 
dataflle structure with 
DOS and OS/2 ver- 
sions. This might ex- 
plain the sudden embar 
ras de riehesse. A fur- 
ther example of this 
wealth of options is the 
"memory only' file type. I 
am not convinced that it 
actually achieves any- 
thing: it was always 
possible to make use of 
a dummy file, or for that 
matter a real file, with- 
out necessarily insert- 
ing the data as a stored 

New maths functions Include 
sin. cos, tan with inverses, expo- 
nential, factorial, log to 
base e, log to base 10. 
maximum/ minimum 
values, annuity, modu- 
lus. String functions 
can now re turn an ASCII 
value. Scores of new 
SYS variables return in- 
formation that is either 
specific to the current 
application, e.g. num- 
ber of records in the 
main file, or to current 
environment, e.g. the 
name of the current 
printer, is there a 
mouse, current screen 
width etc. 

In view of the tremen- 
dous expansion, there 
are surprisingly few 
hitches. Blyth have a 
healthy disregard for 
non-essentials. If the 
scroll box is left high & 
dry when a scrolling list 
is exploded (quite a 
clever idea), so what? It 

corrects Itself at the next scroll. 
Altogether this version seems to 
be extremely stable. 


Procedures: the exploding list 
The list of procedure commands 
(the old "sequence" commands) 
has lengthened dramatically. I 
have always admired the Omnis 
resourcefulness at making avail- 
able what is required when it is 
required. Any command termi- 
nating in an ellipsis is a heading 
for a further subset of commands. 
Double -click on the heading and 
the subset Is added to the list, 
indented. This subset may itself 
contain further headings. Find- 
ing the required set would be an 
impossible task were it not for the 
Reference Manual which lists all 
the commands in strictly alpha- 
betical order and describes the 
path to that command. Further 
information about every com- 
mand includes: 

•Reversible: Y/N indication of 
whether this command is re- 

• Flag affected: Y/N Indication 
of whether this action affects 
the flag 

•Parameters; List of the pos- 
sible parameters that may ac- 
company this command. 
•Summary: Brief description 
of its purpose. 

• Description: Fuller discus- 
sion of the effects of this com- 

This is one way in which the 
manuals are more helpful than 
previously. Many of the descrip- 
tions are more explicit and occa- 
sionally a technique is explained 
that had to be learned by trial and 
error before. 

Menu procedures/ 

Window procedures 

Every menu offers a command 

list window similar to the old 

sequences window. So too does 




December 1989 

every data entry window. The 
menu procedures window will list 
the commands that are activated 
by menu selections, while the 
widow procedures window lists 
the commands activated by the 
buttons on that window. Either 
type of procedure window may 
hold many more procedures that 
may be called from anywhere. 

Rlign Objects 

Vertical — 
O Center 
O Bottom 



O Center 
O RigM 


( Cancel 

having everything done for you. 

Utilities, once a separate pro- 
gram, are now available on the 
menu. They are also smoother in 
operation. The request to reor- 
ganise data does a quick global 
tour of all the file formats and re- 
ports back. I have always held 
that this check should be auto- 
matic whenever any data file is 
opened. It could 
prevent a dat- 
aflle from be- 
coming a hope- 
less tangle of 
garbage. Clearly 
many users will 
have several 
data files and 
frequently more 
than one appli- 
cation ('applica- 
tion' being the 
new term for 'li- 
brary 1 ). 


It is now possible to define your 
own buttons and button areas 
anywhere on screen: buttons that 
behave like buttons, that is. A 
most thoughtful provi- 
sion in the button defi- 
nition parameters is the 
facility to define the but- 
ton as unavailable un- 
less a record Is present. 
Tliis saves the hassle of 
testing for a record be- 
fore allowing EDIT or 
DELETE. As before. OK 
and CANCEL appear 
only during data entry, BUT only 
if you have remembered to define 
them. You cannot have the free- 
dom of DIY and the luxury of 


Upwardly mobile? 
Much of this review has been a 
comparison of version 5 with ver- 
sion 3. in the belief that this 
approach would offer more useful 
information to more readers. 










flTTiTT ■ -"-"i : " : : r 'T""rcr 

Enamine application file 
Examine data file 

Reorganize data 
Check data file 

Export data 
Import data 

Blyth do not pretend that version 
5 will effortlessly convert earlier 
libraries and datafiles, although it 
makes a valiant attempt. The dif- 
ferences are so 
great that my pref- 
erence would be to 
rewrite from 
scratch. America 
has three gifts to 
the civilised 

world, two of 
which are benefi- 
cial. One is the 
Macintosh. The 
other is the simple 
rule of thumb *lfit 
ain't bust don't fix 
ill '. IfyourOmnis 
3 Plus application 
works, leave it 

Minor complaints department 

The new dialogue boxes for 
changing application file or data 
file do not tell you what file you are 
currently using. This was a most 
useful feature of version 3 Plus. 
Many human errors, especially 
programming errors, are caused 
by forgetting where we are now. 1 
frequently used the old dialog 
boxes Just for the purpose of 
checking which library or which 
data file was current. 

While text is being typed in an 
entry field Omnis does not call 
'obscurecursor' so the mouse 
cursor obstructs your view of the 
screen until you have typed your 
way past it. This would be a small 
courtesy, showing consideration 
for the user. 

I could not discover where to 
find information about the many 
menus that become Installed 
while developing an application. 
It may be that all their many op- 
tions are explained in the 'Getting 
Started" at the appropriate point. 

Desert Island Disk 
If I were stranded on a desert 
island and allowed only one disk, 
I would be very tempted 
to take Omnis 5. It 
combines data proces- 
sor, word processor, 
programming lan- 
guage, draw program (it 
Is the only program I 
possess that has 'draw' 
tools!). There are now so 
many highways and by- 
ways to explore, a spell 
on a desert island would be the 
ideal way to get to grips with all 
this new-found power. « 


Product : Omnis E 
Publisher: Blyth Software 
Available from : 


01 643 4626 

Price : £425.00 
(plus P&P and VAT) 

Value : **« «* 
Performance : # # # # # 
Documentation : ***** 

December 1989 





Deja Vu 

A review of a gre at adventure game 
by Ceri Fisher 

Do you like adventure games ? 
If so, you'll love Deja Vu... 

Good evening. Welcome to a 
nightmare come true. 

You are waking from a stupor 
that feels like a chronic Ixangover 
after a week in Vegas. There is a 
throbbing bump on the back of 
your head, big enough to make 
your hat size look like an Ohjmptc 
record. You notice your right palm 
is covered with dried blood, but 
you neither see nor feel any open 
wounds onyour body. Onyourleft 
forearm you feel a sharp pain 
under Die shirt sleeve. Rolling up 
the sleeve, you discover what 
looks like a fresh needle mark. 
"Have I been injected with some- 
thing?" you wonder. Then you 
realize. 7? WJu> am l? n YOU 

As you come out of the fog you 
are able to make out your sur- 
roundings. You 
have no idea 
where you are 
and why you're 
here. You have 
no memory ... 
W II AT S O - 

You're about 
to find yourself 
framed ! 

The first 

things you'll 
need are a gun 
and a raincoat, 
and, in true ad- 
fashion, ex- 
plore by going 
in and out of 
things, tackling 
dealing with 
third parties 
and a few other 
tricks besides. 

It arrives on two 340K disks, 
(yes. the single-sided ones - re- 
member them ?) and is thor- 
oughly copy-protected - no instal- 
lation on a single 780K or hard 
disk is possible. This is a pity as 
it leads to the old disk- shuffle on 
start-up and at sundry other 
times and places, although It 
generally manages to avoid hap- 
pening at the worst possible 

The graphic interface is good, 
objects can be transferred from 
the environment (wherever you 
find them) to the Inventory (or any 
suitable Item within it) and back 
by just dragging them. 

Rooms are right there (or behind 
doors), and pointing and clicking 
is enough to open, enter or do 
something else appropriate. As in 
all adventure games, you can't 
always go back so easily... 

Notes can be taken easily (Copy- 

ing from the dialogue window, 
and pasting to the scrapbook or 
whatever) and there are some 
Important details which need to 
be remembered. 

There are Interactions between 
what you have and what's Out 
There, and these are actioned by 
the "Operate" menu command - 
as in: click on the key, click 
"Operate", click on the door; un- 
locks the door. 

The whole game Is very well- 
behaved, apart from the old-fash- 
ioned disk nonsense mentioned 
earlier, and It doesn't like Multi- 

As with all games of this type, 
there really is only one way to play 
it - you have the clues and there is 
just one way to deal with each 
situation as it arises. The 'char- 
acter' In whose shoes you find 
yourself was an ace boxer - so in 
many places there's no alterna- 
tive to slugging your way out of a 

I'm unwilling to say much more 
because I certainly don't want to 
spoil it for those of you for whom 
this is just how you like to spend 
£24 and a week of evenings... 
Have fun. m 


Performance * * * * * 

Documentation i i i 4 » 

Value -for-money « # # m ti 


You're in an office. There is a dead body slumped oner the desk. His left 
hand still grips the phone receiuer. In the background there is a wall 
safe, a window, and a telephone. 


S A 


December 1989 


MacUser Show Special 

Macintosh Public Domain Software 


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Super Ruler 1 .0 

Calendar Tools* 1.7 

Star Search 24 
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Mailing List Maker 
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File Utilities: 

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December 1989 




are introducing a new 
service for members, 
called AppleXtras 

in exchange for an addi- 
tional subscription of 
£20.00 per annum, you 
can enjoy the conven- 
ience of having a mixture 
of P.D. software sent to 
you at the same time as 
your Apple20O0 maga- 
zine — that's six disks a 

The new service will be 
available from February 
1990, so our P.D. librari- 
ans are busy right now — 
selecting the goodies to 
go onto the first disks. 

Three formats will be 

available ;- 
Apple II — 5.25" ProDOS 
Apple nGS — 3.5" (800K) 
Macintosh — 3.5" (800K) 

The cost will be the same 
for all tliree formats — 
Just £20.00 per annum. 
If you want to subscribe 
for two formats, we can 
supply them both for 
£35.00 per annum. 

Don't delay, Just com- 
plete the enclosed appli- 
cation form and return It 
to the P.O . Box with your 
cheque or your credit 
card details. 

Applefctras subscription 

£20.00 per annum 

or 2 formats for 

£35.00 per annum 

What Willi 990 bring? 
Rumours abound! 

It has been reported from the States that Apple are 
planning to release at least three new Macintoshes 
within the next year. 

The new range would Include a low-cost replace- 
ment for the Mac Plus and Mac SE, a lower-cost 
colour machine and a successor to the Mac IIx. 

The Mac Plus/SE replacement is expected to use 
the same 68000 central processor as its predeces- 
sors, therefore It would not be able to take advantage 
of many of the features of System 7.0 — but it is 
expected to Incorporate a 1.4 Mbyte SuperDnVe. 

The lower-cost colour machine Is expected to be 
based on the 68030 processor used in the Mac IIx, 
Ilex and SE/30. The machine should be designed 
with System 7.0 In mind, so It is expected to take full 
advantage of the system's features and should run 
about four times faster than the Mac Plus. 

The third machine Is reportedly designed to pro- 
vide improved performance for processor-Intensive 
appllcaUons such as desktop publishing and CAD. 

Rumours are also flying about other possible 
developments in L991 — including a new Mac 
Portable based on the 68030 processor. Wonder if 
the speculaUon will continue as long as it did for the 
original portable? # 

Apple Inc. admit problems 
with the AppleCD SC 

Apple Inc. have now acknowledged complaints from 
both users and developers, that its CD-ROM player 
— the AppleCD SC — misses data in some circum- 
stances, and that it may eventually be unable to 
recognise disks. The problem is attributed to dust 
collecting under the laser lens, but Apple are hoping 
to announce a solution to the problem soon. » 

Beagles Bros. Inc. announce 
first Mac product 

Beagle Bros. Inc. have announced their first Macin- 
tosh product. The company is well-respected as a 
developer of Apple II software, so this diversification 
may come as a surprise to many. 

The new product, called "Flash", is a network 
utility that allows the sharing of flies in the back- 
ground by using a folder system. The principle is 
similar to that used by Claris's Public Folder, but 
with the advantage that the files sent by Flash will be 
made available only to the addressee. 4 

50 ejfi 


December 1989 

Book Reviews 

A selec tion of Macintosh books 
reviewed by John Arnold. 

Stephen Wolfram 
Addlson-Wesley 1988. @ £19.99 

Mathematica™ is a very impor 
tant software package, and very 
large, it needs a considerable 
amount of memory to work in. the 
C source code amounts to some 
180.000 lines. The software runs 
on a range of computers from the 
Macintosh to supercomputers, 
and many of these will be net- 
worked to tenninals. Hence the 
need for this publication to be 
obtainable from bookshops for 
students and those who are able 
to access the software, but who 
haven't got their own manuals. 
The book is in fact distributed as 
part of the package, as well as the 
manuals specific to the machine 
on which it will be run. 

The sub heading of the book "A 
System for Doing Mathematics by 
Computer", describes the basic 
aim of the Mathematica package, 
although this description doesn't 
give any indication of the multi- 
tude of possibilities available from 
within Mathematica. This book is 
written by the person who origi- 
nated the idea of Mathematica 
and who also wrote much of the 
code, the first page after the title 
sheet gives a list of all who were 
involved in the development and 
what contribution they made. 

The book describes Mathe- 
matica as it applies to any ma- 
chine, although where a front end 
screen is shown in the text it is the 
Macintosh screen that has been 
selected. Also the book is not 
about applications, it does not 
give details of writing the Mathe- 
matica notebooks, these areas 
will be addressed in further books 
(The latest Addlson-Wesley cata- 
log lists two such books to be 
available late 1989). Th is is meant 

to be a book review not a software 
review so I will restrict myself to 
the task in hand! It is a rather 
thick book which can be obtained 
in paper covers or in hardback, 
having a rather nice cover (gener- 
ated by Mathematica to give a 12 
megabyte colour bitmap). There 
are no further colour images in 
the body of the text. There are four 
sections and two appendices. 
These being:- 

0. A Tour of Mathematica 
Gives a brief overview and ex- 
amples of what can be done. 

1. A Practical Introduction to 

Mathematical operations with a 
graphical section. 

2. The Structure of Mathematica. 
How Mathematica works, starting 
with how expressions are 
handled, leading to input and 
output, and finishing with a small 
section on resource management. 

3. Advanced Mathematics in 

Here details of numerical preci- 
sion, mathematical functions 
both elementary and advanced, 
polynomials, manipulating equa- 
tions, calculus, power series, lin- 
ear algebra, and numerical opera- 
tions are described. 

4. Mathematica as a Computer 

A short section on programming 
from within Mathematica. 

A. Some Examples of Mathe- 
matica Packages. 

A quick look at some typical 
Mathematica packages inclu- 
ding a look at Gosper's algorithm 
and ending with three dimen- 
sional graphics. 

B. Mathematica Reference Guide. 
The complete reference section to 


Each section starts with a full 

page of graphics printed via the 

PostScript output of Mathe- 
matica. with full details of what 
function and lighting was used to 
produce the image. 

Very little information Is given in 
the text of the mathematical algo- 
rithms used to produce the out- 
put which for a mathematician is 
rather disappointing. As with all 
the Addlson-Wesley books I have 
seen recently the production is 
faultless, the text is well illus- 
trated by actual output from the 
program, and should be seen by 
anyone interested in Mathemat- 
ics, unfortunately however they 
will not be able to take advantage 
of what the text offers . unless they 
have access to Mathematica. 

(An aside for those well into 
Mathematica, I understand a 
Mathematica Journal Is to be 
published next year, although at 
the moment I have no further 

Thorn Hogan 

Microsoft Press 1989 @ £21.95. 

This 462 page reference book for 
the Macintosh consists essen- 
tially of tables of Information, 
gleaned from the Macintosh refer- 
ence tombs. Inside Macintosh 
Vols I to V, and a number of the 
other standard works that pro- 
grammers need to refer to at some 
time or another. The advantage of 
the current book is that the infor- 
mation has been collected to- 
gether into one volume, with the 
tabular presentation of the data 
making the retrieval of specific 
Information much easier than it 
was before. Most of the tables 
contain cross-references to other 
relevant sections In the book and 
also details of the source of the 

I doubt that tills reference book 
will be the sole source that pro- 
grammers will need to refer to, 
because obviously the original 
sources will contain much addi- 
tional material, but I wouldn't 
mindbettingthatitwlllbe thefirst 
to be picked up when something 
has to be looked up. 

One difficulty for the author 
must have been that of obtaining 
up to data details, and this shows 
in some of the notes provided with 
each table, as some of the infor- 
mation is only accurate to system 

There is an extraordinary 

December 1989 


B 51 

amount of detailed data in this 
volume and should without doubt 
be on the desk of all Macintosh 
programmers. The author prom- 
ises to update the volume to deal 
with new Apple machines as they 
appear, with more information 
relevant to the MacIIX being in- 
cluded in the next edition. 

Another reference book Is:- 
David Holzgang 



Scott Foresman 1989 ® 


This book which runs to 486 
pages consists of three parts, the 
first 370 pages is the Postscript 
language reference section, fol- 
lowed by a Cookbook section, 
with Appendices completing the 
book. I must admit that I haven't 
had the book long, and conse- 
quently I have not read it all 
although that is my intention as I 
find PostScript an interesting 
language. However one thing is 
immediately apparent from even a 
superficial glance through the 
book, and that is the rather low 
numbers of graphic illustrations, 
which to mc is a disappointment. 
The Cookbook section does give 
the PostScript code for those illus- 
trations that are printed in the 

A card in the beginning of the 
book invites the reader to send the 
completed card together with 
$19.95 for a disk containing the 
Cookbook examples plus a num- 
ber of other interesting and useful 

The main body of the text col- 
lects together and makes avail- 
able in one volume, information 
that can be found in the several 
PostScript books that are cur- 
rently on sale. 

The book is probably more read- 
able than many reference books, 
but I question the necessity for 
both an introduction section 
which gives an overview of the 
book as a whole when the reader 
then finds that each section also 
starts with a description of what 
they have in store when they read 
the remainder of the section. 

Gary Bond 


MIS Press 1988 @ £19.95. 


This book is for HyperCard users 
who are also either Pascal or C 

programmers. It contains many 
examples of coding, each example 
being given both in Pascal and C. 
of XCMD's and XFCN's with de- 
tails of how they may be used from 
HyperTalk, and how they can be 
added to HyperCard . The various 
chapters are as follows: - 

1. Designing XCMD's and 

2. Understanding XCMD's and 

3. Accessing HyperCard's Inter- 
nal Structures. 

4. Creating Your First XCMD 

5. Debugging and Related Infor- 

6. Ready-to-use XCMD's and 


I have found this book to be 
most useful, as I found some 
things In HyperCard to be rather 
slow, and I needed to speed things 
along a bit. Without this book I 
doubt whether I would have lo- 
cated the necessary information 
needed to write and attach to 
HyperCard the compiled Pascal 
coding required. 

The coding in the book is for 
MPW Pascal, and Lightspeed C. 
although I found no trouble con- 
verting to Lightspeed Pascal. 

A useful book, well worth getting 
for anyone who needs to add their 
own coding to HyperCard. 

Paul E. Hoffman 
CEL 2.2 

Bantam Books 1989 © £20.45, 

This book is stated to be for 'inter- 
mediate' users, ie. those who are 
familiar with the Macintosh and 
with some of the spreadsheet 
operations, and who want to 
make more use of the Excel facili- 
ties, but find the Microsoft docu- 
mentation rather daunting. 

There are sections dealing with 
Worksheets. Databases, Charts, 
Macros. Printing, saving and data 
transfer, followed by an Excel ref- 
erence section. Apart from a sub- 
stantial section on Macros, the 
use of macros within Excel is 
emphasised in many of the other 
sections, with plenty of examples 

The book applies to version 2.2 
of Excel . with its new features and 
functions, although no emphasis 
is given to the new features, these 
come in at appropriate places tn 
the text. I would have liked to have 

seen the Items in the reference 
section cross-linked to corre- 
sponding pages in the text, and 
also in a book of this nature, 
where the text refers to particular 
items at other places in the book, 
it would have been more conven- 
ient to have the chapter numbers 
displayed along with the page 
numbers at the top of the page. 
The book is nicely printed with 
plenty of illustrations of sections 
of worksheets, macros, dialog 
boxes etc. and should take the 
reader from an elementary knowl- 
edge of spreadsheets to a point 
where they can make much more 
use of the features to be found in 

Deke McCelland & Craig 



Dow Jones-Irwin 1989 @ 
£19.50, 312pp. 

With most software packages that 
have a number of powerful fea- 
tures, some additional material, 
other than the manuals alone is 
probably required by many users, 
a view obviously shared by many 
of the publishers. This book Is the 
first on FreeHand I have seen and 
Is very well printed on good paper. 
The Colophon at the end of the 
book gives the details of the soft- 
ware and equipment used to pro- 
duce the text and illustrations, 
the results as shown in this book 
being an excellent advertisement 
for desktop publishing with the 
Macintosh. The book deals with. I 
believe, the original version of 
FreeHand. not version 2.0 be- 
cause nowhere can 1 sec a refer- 
ence to the version number. There 
arc a multitude of Illustrations as 
would have expected from a book 
specifically dealing with a draw- 
ing package, although no colour 
illustrations appear anywhere. 
Sixteen chapters take the reader 
through the process of using Free- 
Hand. explaining the use of the 
various tools available from the 
palettes and menus. 

The last chapter is titled Aldus 
FreeHand and the PostScript lan- 
guage and contains some inter- 
esting Postscript information and 
coding. The Appendix has details 
of customising FreeHand with 
ResFdit. An excellent book and a 
useful addition to the Macintosh 
graphics library. * 

52 B M 


December! 989 

®(Ti®ir©: 0823 - 663625 

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Artificial Intelligence 

What Every Macintosh Programmer Should Know 

by Anna O'Connell, P.E. 

This Is the second of two articles on Artificial 
Intelligence by Anne O'Carroll. The first article 
was printed on pages 54 to 57 of the previous 
issue of Apple 200O, October 1989. 
The first article dealt with the followlng:- 

Artificial Intelligence Hardware 

Macintosh n Co-Processors 

Al Software Techniques 

Inference Engines 

Model Based Reasoning 

Expert System Development Shells 

Knowledge Representation 

Why Use AI? 

Why a Mac for AI? 

With the introduction of the Macintosh II, Apple 
finally began to acknowledge the fact that the Macin- 
tosh interface is an ideal environment for artificial 
intelligence work, and to market the machine ac- 
cordingly. Based on Xerox STAR technology, and 
owing an additional debt to Xerox LISP workstations, 
the Macintosh is a machine designed around object 
oriented programming paradigms (Tnere, I did it. 
Every article on artificial Intelligence must contain at 
least one gratuitous use of the words "paradigm" or 
"heuristic". It's a guild rule.) Macintoshes feature the 
rich user environment of windows, icons, and 
menus th at were originally developed by AI research- 
ers using LISP. Many of the first Macintosh programs 
available were for doing Al-lsh things, like speech 
generation from text. And then, of course there's 
HyperCard as a built in front or back end for knowl- 
edge representation. 

Another reason for using a Mac to do AI are the 
coprocessor boards previously mentioned. LISP 
machines are very definitely computers "for the few 
of us", since they cost more per workstation than 
most of us make in a year. You can do useful, fast- 
response AI development and deployment on these 
hybrid computers for less than half of what a LISP 
machine would cost. 

And for those of you who want to put high-powered 
AI into a hostile environment, there is a solution 
tailor-made. Automatix. of Billerica, MA makes 
something they call an AI90 factory floor controller. 
It consists of a Macintosh II repackaged with an 
upgraded power supply, NEMA 12 enclosure, posi- 
tive pressure cooling air, and rack mounting. Adding 
a LISP co-processor to one of these will give you an 
industrially hardened LISP machine, with all the 
data collection faculties, numeric processing power 

and connectivity features of a Mac. Manufacturing 
engineers and factory systems integrators, please 
take note. 

An additional reason for choosing the Mac is the 
availability of some truly excellent expert system 
development shells and other tools for AI work 
Nexpert Object is an extremely powerful develop- 
ment shell, combining rule-based and object ori- 
ented programming power. AI systems developed 
using it are highly portable among the machines for 
which Nexpert Object is available. Tnose machines 
currently include the Macintosh II under either 
standard System or A/UX. 80286 and 80386 DOS 
machines running Windows. UNIX workstations 
from Sun, Hewlett Packard and Apollo, VAXes from 
the microVAX up. and will soon include IBM main- 
frames running VM and MVS. It is priced at $5,000 
a copy for the microcomputers and workstations. 
For the VAX and IBM mainframe versions, the price 
is $7,000. For more Information, contact Neuron 
Data in Palo Alto. CA or the Bechtel AI Institute in 
San Francisco, CA. Neuron Data wrote and sells the 
shell; the Bechtel people train purchasers in Its use 
and do development work as well as sell product. 

Another shell that has enjoyed great popularity in 
the DOS world is GoldWorks II. At the August 1988 
Macworld exposition it was announced that Gold 
Hill and Coral Software (of Coral/Allegro Common 
LISP fame) had cooperated to port this shell to the 
Macintosh. The president of Gold Hill was widely 
quoted as claiming that this was NOTjust a straight 
port of the DOS tool— that it had been redesigned to 
give it a complete Macintosh interface. From what I 
saw during several hours of playing with a (very 
robust) beta copy at the show, he was correct. The 
software is now shipping, it Is powerful, very flexible, 
and has excellent hooks to interface building and 
data management tools that will be familiar to most 
Mac programmers. 

The Mac version of this program owes as much to 
the skill of the people at Coral Software who devel- 
oped the underlying Coral Common LISP for the 
Macintosh, as it does to the people al Gold Hill who 
wrote the software designed for a souped up 80286 
machine, in Gold Hill Common LISP. The asking 
price for this shell is $7,000 in both Mac and DOS 

How to get Started in AI 

If you are already a Macintosh programmer skillful 
at using procedural languages, you need not listen to 

54 B M 


December 1989 

what 1 am about to say. You have already proven that 
you are one of those driven individuals who have to 
know all about the details of everything. But for 
those of you who don't have all the A traps memo- 
rized, or who never did master programming In an 
assembly language, much less the ability to create 
one. listen up! Mastering a complex new skill takes 
time, effort, and a certain amount of innate talent. 
You cannot tell whether or not you have the neces- 
sary talent until you put in the time and effort. You 
will NOT be able to leam all about AI overnight. Do 
not attempt to produce programs written in LISP ( at 
least not for money) if you are only recently aware 
that it is something other than a speech impediment. 

On the other hand, you can leani to do some useful 
and interesting things fairly quickly by using tools 
developed by those more skillful than you are now. 
I strongly advocate that beginners seek out expert 
system shells that represent knowledge in the way 
that seems most natural to the problem being solved 
(more on this later!) . Or purchase a natu ral language 
parser if you are trying to add ad hoc querying 
capability to a database application. Or keep your 
eyes and ears open for the availability of an XCMD 
inference engine for HyperCard (at least three or- 
ganizations 1 am aware of are developing one of 

The next thing beginners (and this includes begin- 
ning Mac programmers, as well) should try is an 
object oriented program development system. The 
basis of object oriented programming (OOP) is the 
idea that data items are objects that belong to 
classes. Each individual item or object, can both 
inherit some characteristics of its' parent class, and 
possess unique characteristics that distinguish it 
from other objects. 

One of the characteristics an object can possess is 
called a "method", which is a description of the 
objects' behavior under specified conditions. Ob- 
jects interact with each other by passing messages, 
which can either trigger methods or can cause the 
recipient object to acquire a new method form the 
donor object. Either MacApp or Smalltalk V is an 
excellent choice if you want to learn about object 
oriented programming systems. Smalltalk V can be 
had from Digitalk Inc. of Los Angeles, CA for 

Choosing A Problem To Solve With AI 

As with any other programming effort, you should 
assess the "market" for an AI project before you set 
to work. Is the problem you want to solve significant 
in terms of the time or money currently spent on 
surmounting it? Is a faster, more reliable solution 
worth the time that will be spent to develop that 
solution? Will someone use the program once you 
have developed it? Unless at least one of these 
questions can be answered yes. you have a "toy" 
problem. These types of problems are OK for early 
experimentation, or to solve using a variety of tools 
in order to get a feel for the capabilities of the tools. 
But you should not put very many hours into work 
on this kind of problem. You won't leam enough. 
Even if you will be the only "customer", make your 
learning exercises as practical as possible. But you 
need not always be your own customer. Perhaps one 
or more local hotels would buy copies of a Restau- 

rant Advisor expert system for their out of town 
guests (as long as it recommends their own restau- 
rant, too). Or other members of your HMO who own 
computers might appreciate having a program to 
diagnose childhood diseases, telling them when they 
need only wait for nature to take its course, when to 
head for the emergency room, and when their child 
should see a doctor soon but can wait for regular 
office hours. 

Is there an existing solution method? AI tech- 
niques can be useful to clearly define the limits of 
what is currently known about a solution method. 
And they may be able to apply an otherwise Unprac- 
tically slow method to a greater variety of situations 
distributed in time and space. But AI cannot make 
something out of nothing. Tackling unsolved prob- 
lems Is NOT the best way to learn to use a problem 
solving tool. This warning Is equally applicable to 
experienced developers who ought to know better. 
You can't always believe everything your advertising 
copywriters get past the marketing department. 

Is the solution method ill-suited to expression as 
an algorithm? For many of the smaller problems, 
and for the early stages of development on many 
larger ones, those portions of a solution that can be 
expressed as algorithms can be found in textbooks 
or manuals. If a problem can be solved using proce- 
dural programming methods, and you know how to 
use those methods, do so. If a purely algorithmic 
solution Is inadequate. AI may be a way to improve 
the situation. If there are several possible algo- 
rithms, and the real problem that users will face is 
choosing the most appropriate for a given situation, 
they may need a hybrid AI and procedural system. 

Do you, trie potential developer, have access to 
someone who is expert in applying the existing 
solution method? Is that expert communicative and 
co- operative? The analogy fornon-AJ software devel- 
opment is your application specialist, (see The 
Business of Software articles on Application Selec- 
tion and Team Building) You wouldn't try to develop 
a CAD system for architects without having a few 
architects hanging around to tell you what archi- 
tects do and how they think. In AI development, the 
knowledge engineer's access to the domain expert Is 
a critical issue for designing, developing and testing 
the system. 

And last but not least, is the problem "well 
bounded". Are there a finite number of possible 
solutions given each set of initial conditions? If there 
Is more than one possible solution or answer, are 
they all equally good so that you can stop when the 
first one Is found? Or is there a way to evaluate 
possible solutions to determine which one is "best", 
and Is that way practical in terms of time or re- 
sources required to evaluate? Is there a finite num- 
ber of ways to describe the possible initial condi- 

Choosing an AI Development Tool 

It is an article of faith with me that one should always 
use "the proper tool for the job". I own a variety of 
screwdrivers, both manual and powered, several 
prybars. and not a few chisels. Depending on what 
it is I want to accomplish, I choose the tool most 
suited for the task in terms of size, weight, material, 
design intent, and accessibility. While it is possible 

December 1989 


M B 55 

to use a screwdriver as a wood chisel, I would only 
choose to do that if no suitably sized wood chisels 
were available when and where I needed to do the 
job. In the same way. I choose software development 
tools based on what the software under development 
is supposed to do once It has been developed. In 
general, you should use the highest level tool avail- 
able if it does what you need it to do. 

Choose your AI development tools based on the 
characteristics of the problem being solved. A pro- 
grammer friend of mine whose formal training was in 
biology claims that all programming problems ulti- 
mately boil down to correctly defining the "taxon- 
omy" of the problem. lie meant that knowing or 
developing a consistent, clear terminology that as- 
sists the developer to understand the relationships 
between factors affecting the problem and its solu- 
tion, is critical to designing a program. My friend 
further says that the source of most difficulties in 
program implementation lies in Insufficient atten- 
tion to making the design reflect the taxonomy. 
These two statements are even more important for AI 
programming. The limitations on knowledge repre- 
sentation methods available within a tool may rule it 
out for certain classes of problems. There are many 
types of knowledge that cannot be expressed in 
production rules. And semantic networks in which 
the terminology used is imprecise cannot be parsed 
to give unambiguously correct relationships among 
objects. Give careful thought to the characteristics of 
the knowledge you are including in a system before 
you decide on the technique you use to capture and 
encode that knowledge. 

The next item to consider is whether the tool 
supports the reasoning methods required for an 
adequate solution. Trying to solve a real-time alarm 
monitoring problem with a backward chaining infer- 
ence engine is begging to be frustrated. Developing 
a large rule-based system using a tool that does not 
have some mechanism for prioritizing the order in 
which rules are tried will annoy you during develop- 
ment, and your users once the system Is deployed. 
And using Prolog to develop a system relying on 
model based reasoning will almost certainly doom 
you to failure. Use forward chaining inference for 
data driven or situation analysis type systems. Use 
backward chaining for diagnostic or classification 
systems. Plan for the time to develop customized 
inference engines for problems which require model- 
based reasoning. And plan to need all of the above if 
you tackle anything still being defined, like "real time 

The last item to consider in tool selection is the 
hardware and software environment that the final 
system will require. Are ihe tools you need to build 
a good user interface built into the environment or 
easily accessible from within it? Can software devel- 
oped with this tool be invoked from other programs 
or invoke such things as DBMS in a manner trans- 
parent to the user? Can you develop effectively using 
the same hardware family on which the system will 
be delivered? If the answer to all of these is yes. you 
have a good candidate tool for your project. If it also 
meets all the criteria in the paragraphs above, you 
can count on being able to work effectively on the 
problem you selected. 

Where To Look For More 
Information on Artificial 


The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, edited by 
Avron Barr, Edward Feigenbaum and Paul Cohen. 
This three volume set defines terms, summarizes 
seminal research findings, and acts as a pointer (or 
sometimes a handle) to more academic sources. 
Extremely complete up through its' publication date 
in 1982. 

Expert Systems; Artificial Intelligence in Business by 
Paul Harmon and David King. A survey of the com- 
mercial uses of expert systems. Currently a little 
dated; this is a good book to hand a manager who 
wants to know a little bit about the tech nology before 
buying into it. 

Crafting Knowledge Based Systems: Expert Systems 
MadeRealtsticby John Walters and Norman Nielsen. 
The single best book for the potential developer of 
expert systems I have encountered to date. The 
chapters on knowledge representation, reasoning 
methods and user Interface design arc especially 
germane. This is a must read for apprentice knowl- 
edge engineers. 

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs 
by Harold Abelson, Gerald Sussman and Julie 
Sussmari. If you really crave to learn LISP program- 
ming, thisislhebookforyou. Used in the mandatory 
freshman computer course at M.I.T. 

CommonlJSP, the Language by Guy Steele Jr. Widely 
accepted as the definitive reference on Common 
LISP. Heavy sledding for those not accustomed to 
language definition manuals or Intimately familiar 
with LISP. Use as a reference only. 


AI Expert published by Miller Freeman Publications. 
500 Howard St. , San Francisco CA 94 105. Subtitled 
"the magazine of artificial intelligence in practice", 
this Is where gadfly columnist Harvey Newquist 
gores someones' AI ox every month. Full of code 
samples (also available via CompuServe and 
USENET) and realistic, useable reviews. Until late 
(November) "88 there was little or no Mac content. 
Advertisers wised them up, and they're trying. 

IEEE Expert published by the Computer Society of 
the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 
Back issues of this irregular quarterly can be found 
in most university engineering libraries, or can be 
purchased from IEEE. Contact Reader Services. P.O. 
Box 16508. N. Hollywood. CA 91615. Mostly very 
academic, but highly readable reports on recent 

MacTech Quarterly, in which the article you are cur- 

56 a 


December 1989 

rently reading was first published. This publication 
focuses on software development using procedural 
languages (Pascal. C. FORTRAN), object oriented 
programming systems, and customizable applica- 
tions (HyperCard. 4D. GoldWorks II). Forthcoming 
articles will Include detailed reviews of AI languages 
and development tools for the Mac if the makers of 
same wish to supply either reviewers from among 
their customers or single copies of their products for 

Artificial Intelligence Magazine, published by the 
American Association lor Artificial Intelligence. 
Highly academic, extremely prestigious journal. 
This Is the place the researchers publish their latest 
discoveries. Not bad, if you remember that it will take 
at least a year for anything first mentioned in an 
article here to be used commercially. This organisa- 
tion also sponsors an annual conference that is the 
AI world's place to see and be seen. 

A Comparison of Expert System Shells Available 
for the Macintosh: 

Product Name: Instant Expert 

Manufacturer: Human Intellect Systems 

Price: $50 

Knowledge representation: rules 

Inferencing mechanism: not stated 

Interface design tools: not included 

Integration with other applications: import screens 

via clipboard 

Product Name: Cognate 
Manufacturer: Peridome, Inc. 
Price: $150 

Knowledge representation: rules, facts 
Inferencing mechanism: forward chaining, back- 
ward chaining 

Interface design tools: Mac toolbox 
Integration with other applications: import screens 
via clipboard 

Product Name: MacSmarts 
Manufacturer: Cognition Technology 
Price: $195 

Knowledge representation: examples, some rules 
Inferencing mechanism: rule induction 
Interface design tools: import from other applica- 
tions only 

Integration with other applications: Excel. Hyper- 
Card are mentioned 

Product Name: SuperExpert 
Manufacturer: SoftSync 
Price: $199 

Knowledge representation: examples 
Inferencing mechanismrforward chaining on in- 
duced rules 

Interface design tools: import from other applica- 
tions only 

Integration with other applications: working on 
HyperCard in Jury 88. 

Product Name: Cognate (developers' version) 
Manufacturer: Peridome 
Price: $250 

Knowledge representation: examples, richer rule 
structure than Cognate 

Inferencing mechanism: forward chaining on in- 
duced or explicit rules 

Interface design tools; Import from other applications 
Integration with other applications: via embedded 
object code modules 

Product Name: MacSmarts Professional 
Manufacturer Cognition Technology 
Price: $395 

Knowledge representation: examples, richer rule 
structure than MacSmarts 
Inferencing mechanism: forward chaining 
Interface design tools: Import from other applica- 

Integration with other applications: spreadsheets 
and HyperCard 

Product Name: Instant Expert Plus 
Manufacturer: Human Intellect Systems 
Price: $498 

Knowledge representatlomrules 
Inferencing mechanism: forward chaining and back- 
ward chaining 

Interface design tools: some pre-formatted. import 
from other applications 

Integration with other applications: "hot buttons" to 
launch other apps. 

Product Name: Nexpert Object 
Manufacturer: Neuron Data 
Price: $5,000 

Knowledge representation: rules, frames, objects 
Inferencing mechanism: forward chaining, back- 
ward chaining, pattern matching, & custom 
Interface design tools: Macintosh toolbox. Also 
import from other applications 
Integration with other applications: via embedded 
object code modules 

Product Name: Gold Works II Macintosh Version 
Manufacturer: Gold Hill Computers 
Price: $7,000 

Knowledge representation: rules, frames, objects 
Inferencing mechanism: forward, backward, partem 
matching and custom 

Interface design tools: Macintosh toolbox, also im- 
port from other applications 

Integration with other applications: embedded ob- 
ject code modules or launch. 

This article Copyright 1989 by TcchAlliancc. a 
computer cooperative. All rights reserved. Authors 
arc responsible for the accuracy of their submitted 
material. Opinions expressed do not necessarily 
represent those of TechAlliance. Non-profit Apple 
user groups may reprint editorial material contained 
herein for non-commercial purposes, provided au- 
thor, title, and publication credits are given. The 
address and phone number of MacTech Quarterly 

MacTech Quarterly. 

290 SW 43rd Street, 


Washington 98055 

Tel: (2061-251-5222 4 

December 1989 


MB 57 

What Do You Do With 

An observation of the Apple 
compu ter user's trials and tribulations , 
by Mike Dawson. 

The title of this discussion may. 
to the passing unconcerned eye. 
conjour up images of seaside 
postcards, nudge-nudge, wink- 
wink squire. However to many, if 
not all, of my fellow Apple com- 
puter users no matter what ma- 
chine they may use, be it at home 
or office, the Lille will strike dread 
at the very depths of your heart. 
This is undoubtedly the single 
most common and potentially 
dangerous question any personal 
computer user can face. 

The person posing th is qu estion 
can come in many different guises 
and all pose serious problems. 
Particularly vulnerable are those 
of us who are fool enough to reveal 
that wc spend countless hours 
locked away in a room staring into 
a glowing TV screen. Do not be 
fooled into a false sense of secu- 
rity as all computer users arc 
vulnerable to attack. Even having 
an old computer like an Applell is 
no defence to the relentless on- 
slaught of the curious layperson. 
This can be taken as a compli- 
ment that a computer with a 20 
year design history should still in 
some circles promote awe. Unless 
there is adequate reason (and 
opportunity) to avoid the potential 
attacker here are some of the 
typical persona the "enemy' comes 
disguised as. 

The Nerd' 

This type of person is one which 
typically bought a 'Popular com- 
puter' to play games on and can- 
not comprehend how anyone 
should be able to find anyihing 
else to do on a computer that is 
more productive. A very difficult 
assailant to shake off as this per- 
son will repeatedly return and 
comer you at the ofllce party or In 
the pub Just after a particularly 
long day punctured with system 

bombs and scrambled disc direc- 
tories. A nerd will spend endless 
hours trying to discuss the finer 
merits of the Sinclair tape discs 
for the early Spectrum computer 
or that he can't see anything in 
optical drives (geddit?). An ample 
repost is to ponder upon where 
the bytes go when the monitor is 
switched off. Do they disappear 
down the little dot in the centre of 
the screen?. The Nurd should, 
providing it is not the hybrid spe- 
cies Maximus Boreus. be con- 
fronted with what, to it, seems to 
be a bigger Nurd and take flight. 

'The Boy Racer' 

This is potentially one most 
tenacious assailants as they are 
particularly confident that the 
have the fastest computer in the 
neighbourhood if not the country. 
This is invariably an IBM and is 
reflected with the boy racer's fixa- 
tion with clock speeds and wait 
states (a paradoxical fixation as 
the first causes the second). 
These people are analogous to the 
Ford Escort XR3i owner. Their 
confidence is usually based upon 
a computer magazine article plus 
a few pieces of go-faster gismo's. 
No matter how you may try to 
defend yourself this assailant will 
have a ready repost clouded with 
shaky logic and facts. Only the 
most confident and technically 
minded person should attempt a 
frontal assault on this type of 

'The Born Again Luddlte' 

This person simply hates com- 
puters ever since they bought a 
premium bond in 1 955 and 'Ernie' 
has not paid up yet. No matter 
what you may say or do, nothing 
will subjugate their paranoia for 
the relentless march of computers 
over their lives. A computer is a 

modem evil to them and will be- 
rate anyone with a religious fer- 
vour who professes an interest in 
one let alone owning one. On no 
account tell a bom again Luddite 
that there is a microprocessor in 
their toaster as this may lead to 

'The Economist' 

This is a fellow computer owner 
who could not afford an Apple and 
settled for an Amstrad PC. They 
no doubt regret doing this as the 
Macintosh is so much more at- 
tractive to the girl next door. So 
they pull up their drawbridge and 
fight from behind the battlements 
of cost. "You must be a fool to 
spend so much money" is their 
usual opening sling shot. No 
matter how hard you try to point 
out the obvious (to you) advan- 
tages of the Macintosh over the PC 
compatibles they will not listen. A 
good defence is to torture them 
when you wax lyrical about Multi- 
finder and the integrated operat- 
ing environment. Warning - on no 
account mention the increased 
likelihood of system bombs when 
using Multlfinder. Tills will only 
aid their defences when they at- 
tempt an assault on the next 
unfortunate Apple user they hap- 
pen to stumble across. 

'The Jones's* 

No matter what piece of equip- 
ment you may have the Jones's 
will have a better, quicker one that 
they bought last month at a 
cheaper price. These people seem 
to spend their entire lives looking 
for the next piece of Ili-tech with 
which to dazzle their friends and 
acquaintances. The best defence 
to this blatant one upmanship 
attack Is to try the reverse snob 
technique. This is quite simply to 
tell them that you frequently 
achieve the same thing with your 
good old Apple |[. So there you 
have a concise review of the major 
headaches you may encounter as 
not only a computer owner, but an 
Apple computer owner. Many of 
you may be asking how I manage 
to defend myself from the slings 
and arrows of computer owner- 
ship. 1 have a universal panacea, 
I say quite simply that my Colour 
Macintosh II is an expensive toy 
which I Indulge myself with at 
home- The result ? -I can smugly 
watch them turn green and 
wither!. * 

58 E) M 


December 1989 

Friendly Solutions at your AppleCentre SM 

Ccltip Computers has been in operation for almost ten years and in that time has built up an enviable reputation 

as the Apple™ Macintosh™ dealer in Worcestershire. 

The Macintosh's legendary system of easily understood words and pictures simplifies its operation and with 

the full backing of Ccltip's sales, support, and training facilities you can be sure of 

an efficient friendly solution. Come in for a demonstration today. 

Celtip Computers : AppleCentre SM Kidderminster 
Lower Mill Street, Kidderminster, Worcs, DY10 2JG. Tel : 0562 822222 

Apple, the Apple logo, and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer Inc. AppIcCcntrc is a service mark of Apple Computers Inc. 

Network News 

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from the networks. 

From Infomac 


Hello everybody. This is a sum- 
mary of the replies I've got con- 
cerning running the same copy of 
FDJP on several machines. First I 
must clarify that I am trying FDJP 
out with a friend's copy. I am NOT 
pirating it !!! 

FDJP is serial number protected. 
On boot time, it checks if the same 
copy Is in use over the network, If 
it is, it ex-ed out and does not 

Thanks to all who replied. I won- 
der if Master Juggler works like 
that too? 

Subject: Font DA/ Juggler prob- 

In regards to the query as to why 
Font DA Juggler would not work 
properly over a network: both 
Font DA Juggler and Master Jug- 
gler check the network to see if 
two copies of itself with THE 
loaded concurrently. If It finds a 
copy of Itself, then it will fail to 
load. Alsoft distributes a version 
for networks, but I have no idea as 
to how much this version costs. 
Jim Clark. UT Martin. 

From: William M. Bumgamer 

Font/DA Juggler is COPY PRO- 
TECTED! On a network, when it 
loads, it checks all other ma- 
chines to see if they are running 
the same serial number of F/DA 
Juggler. If a matching serial 
number is found, the currently 
booting machine WILL NOT LOAD 
F/DA Juggler. 

<mild flame on> Kind of annoying 
tf you are a registered user, but 
you happen to boot after someone 

took a copy off of your machine 
without you knowing (office envi- 
ronment, school environment, 
original disk, many different ways 
this could happen...). Kind of 
detrimental if you are a DTP spe- 
cialist and really NEED those 
fonts to complete that important 
document, but can't get to them 
because someone you don't know 
copied F/DA Juggler behind your 
back... <mild flame off> 
Question (point): How often does 
F/DA Juggler listen to the local- 
talk network to see if there Is 
another one asking for serial 
number? How long does it take to 
check the net for others with the 
same serial number? 
One of the reasons why 1 chose 
SuitCase II over F/DA Juggler... 

From: Andrew 
Subject: Serial Port slowing 

I recently wrote an Imagewriter 
emulator program for the BBC 
micro that allows me to print from 
my Macintosh SE into the BBC's 
RS232 port and then out to an 
Epson look-alike printer. The 
program works fine, but the over- 
all setup causes some strange 
things to happen. 
When I have the BBC plugged into 
the Mac the Mac takes ages to 
boot up. Occasionally the SE will 
also beep a number of times be- 
fore it manages to start the bootup 
procedure. This happens whether 
or not the BBC is switched on. 
Unplugging the serial cable re- 
turns everything to normal. 
Do these symptoms look like a 
short somewhere? Is the Mac 
power supply overloaded, and 
hence doing its fancy shutdown 
procedure? Is this what gives the 
double or triple beeps? Why 
would Just the startup procedure 
be slowed down? (Alter startup 

things seem to be working nor- 

Answers to any of my questions 
would be most appreciated. 
Thanks in advance, 
Andrew Mason 
Darwin College 
Cambridge UK 

From: Stuart MacFarlane 
Subject: Two system folders 
We have a Mac+ and an Apple 
HD20. We'd like to be able to use 
either the English operating sys- 
tem, or the Japanese version 
(Kanjitalk). This seems to mean 
having two system folders on the 
hard disc, with some method of 
telling the Mac which one we are 
using at present. (Alternatives 
Involve moving lots of stuff in and 
out of the system folder by hand 
each time, this is tedious. Putting 
one system on a floppy and boot- 
ing from that doesn't work, be 
cause applications on the hard 
disc default back to the hard disc 
system folder when they exit.) IVe 
heard that there is a PD program 
called (?) 'system shifter' that 
might help: can someone tell me 
how to get hold of this? Or, has 
anyone solved this problem any 
other way? Please mail me and I'll 
post a summary. 
Stuart MacFarlane 
Heriot-Watt University. 
Chambers Street, 
Edinburgh EH 1 1HX. Scotland 
Tel: 031-225 8432 extl9 
From: Kathy S Brown 
Subject: Using Network DiskFit 
vl.5 with the Apple Tape Drive 
Below is the original posting 
about Network DiskFit vl.5 with 
Apple's 40SC Tape Drive. Al- 
though this tape drive is not the 
fastest, it does work with Network 
DiskFit, wc have been using it 
hereatBrownsinceNDFvl.4. We 
too had trouble with vl.5. mostly 
because System v6.0.2 takes up 
so much room on floppy, which 
one needs to boot from to backup 
the server. 

For our AppleShare servers (one a 
Plus and one an SE, each with an 
80 mg Hard Drive), the key was to 
have enough CONTIGUOUS 
space on the HD for the Tape 
Cache file. Although Its over 
600k, leave it there after the 
backup, so it can be used the next 
time. The other important piece 
you need is the tape driver. ULDa- 
taStream version 2.02. (Which I 
thought came withNDF vl.5- else 
call SuperMacTech Support). The 




December 1989 
when to eject the tape. DO IT 
ONLY when you see the eject 
prompt - else you may have to 
start all over at rebooting! But hey 
- it all works and having NDF on 
the server for users to use helps 

Nowl have a question. Afew users 
have complained about their first 
disk in a smartset getting cor- 
rupted. I haven't experienced this 
myself but does anyone know if 
this is a "real" problem, and what 
is the workaround? These users 
claim they had to do the entire 
backup again. Thanks in ad- 

Kathy Brown, 
Academic Services, 
Brown University 

From; John E. Haberland 
Subject: Word personalization 
Does anyone know how to change 
the personalization box in Micro- 
soft Word? The manual says to 
copy the master because once you 
personalize it MS says it can't be 
changed. Unfortunately my mas- 
ter has died and I wish to change 
the personalization on rny only 
working copy. Which resource 
fork does the information lie in? I 
think I could ResEdlt it if I could 
only find the proper fork. Any help 
would be appreciated. Thanks. 

From: Alex Curylo 
Subject: Word personalization 
Re/personalizing Microsoft Word: 
Of *course* Microsoft tells you it 
can't be changed. (What would be 
the point of putting it in other- 
wise? :-) Most of the 'personal- 
izable" programs (Microsoft, 
Claris, I think Videoworks. etc.) 
save the personal information in a 
very standard way: in data fork of 
the application. Zap the data 
fork, and next time you boot up, 
it'll ask you to customize It again. 
If you dont like mucking around 
like that, there's a program called 
"Anyonymity" available off many 
bulletin boards that will replace 
the personalized information for 
you or destroy it completely. 
Alex Curylo. student, 
Simon Fraser University 

From: Klaus Schnathmeier 
Subject: Word personalization 
No John, you are wrong I This 
information does not lie in any 
resource fork, but in the begin- 
ning of the data fork. First you 
have a length byte there, then the 
desired string follows. I hope you 
are not going to personalize a 

"borrowed'' copy ("grin"). Working 
with Microsoft products, you have 
to recognize them to be of a 
strange design. The menu -re- 
source for example is not shown 
in the resource fork (although 
existant) and so not accessible to 
ResEdit. It Js Just "hidden" be- 
tween all the other resources and 
can only be changed with a sector- 
editor. To me this Is a problem, for 
the German Word-version did 
confuse all the command codes. 
Applications from any developer 
are shut down with Command- 
"0". not those of Microsoft. They 
instead use Comrnand-"B'* for the 
German word "Beenden". Every 
attempt to nationalize computer 
products is welcome to me. but 
this is the wrong way. With best 

Klaus Schnathmeier 
TU Hamburg-Harburg 
W. Germany 

From: John E. Haberland 
Subject: Word personalization 
1 thank everybody for their help in 
'repersonallzlng" my Word 4.0. 
For those of you who didn't see 
how it's done, here it is. Use a 
program that recognizes data 
forks like MacSnoop or REdlt and 
open the data fork. Then using 
the programs' respective com- 
mands, set the EOF to zero and 
relaunch. The program will then 
prompt you to personalize it Just 
like a clean master would. You 
can also use this method for other 
personalizable applications like 
MacWrite. Excel, and the like. 

From: Sigurd Meldal 
Subject: QulckTimer and peri- 
odic actions, with many appli- 
cations under Multi Finder 
For the tips directory? 
With QulckTimer (part of the 
QuicKeys 1.2 release) came the 
possibility of automatic saves 
(and other useful actions) at 
timed intervals. Lovely. I thought, 
and set about defining automatic 
saves every 5 minutes (I am para- 

As suggested in the manual, 1 let 
a bizarre key combination (e.g. 
pad-zero) denote the "save" menu 
choice, and defined the sequence 
"Periodic" to consist of this key- 
stroke. In QulckTimer I set It to 
execute every 5 minutes, and I 
started typing. And what do you 
know, five minutes later my file 
was saved. Joy! Except that five 
minutes later I was in another 

application, and it did not have a 
save command - it beeped angrily 
at me. There were a number of 
attempts to remedy the situ ation - 
let me give the procedure that 

The problem: I want an applica- 
tion specific action at regular in- 
tervals. For some applications it is 
a save, for some It is to do nothing 
at all, for some It is something 
else. The default is to do nothing. 
The solution: Enter the Universal 
part of QuicKeys on the control 

Define a sequence which per- 
forms the default actions, in my 
case NOTHING, and assign an 
unused keystroke to it (e.g. 
command-ctrl-option- keypad- 
zero). Call it "empty" or some- 
thing similarly descriptive. 
Define another sequence which 
consists of the keystroke assigned 
to "empty". Assign another un- 
used keystroke to that, and name 
it "Periodic". 

In QulckTimer, enter the wished- 
for interval for periodic actions. 
For each application which 
should do something with the set 
intervals, define a sequence per- 
forming the action, and assign it 
the keystroke used in the "Peri- 
odic" sequence defined earlier. 
The result: Periodically. Quick- 
Timer will perform the keystroke 
given in the sequence "Periodic". If 
that keystroke is assigned to some 
action by QuicKeys for the appli- 
cation you happen to be in at that 
time, then QuicKeys will perform 
that action. If no such assignment 
exists, the action assigned to the 
keystroke In the Universal part 
will be performed, i.e. the default 
action (which still is nothing, in 
my case). 

This does not ascertain automatic 
saves (e.g. I am in another appli- 
cation every time QulckTimer 
triggers the periodic action), but it 
certainly is a vast improvement to 
manually saving work at appro- 
priate Intervals. 

From: John E. Haberland 
Subject: 'virus protection 
My office LAN consists of thirty 
Mac SEs and Pluses connected to 
a Mac II server (40 meg) running 
Appleshare and Lasershare. My 
problem is that last week I found 
out that Interferon (being the Infe- 
rior application it is) fails to detect 
nVIR a and nVIR b viruses. After 
running Disinfectant, to my dis- 

December 1989 


5 61 

may. I found that my entire server 
(and nodes) was infected. I 
cleaned the server and every disk 
in the office. I also installed Vac- 
cine on all the system disks as 
well as in the server's system 
folder. Does Vaccine (being in the 
server's system folder) prevent a 
virus from installing anywhere on 
the server? Are there special lnits 
for servers that do this? Does 
Gatekeeper do a better job than 
Vaccine? Am I correct in thinking 
that viruses only attach them- 
selves to applications and not 
documents? Any help would be 
immensely appreciated as I don't 
want to go through another fiasco 
like this again. 

From: Joe McMahon 
Subject: Vaccine, GateKeeper, 
and Servers 

> Does Vaccine (being in the 
server's system folder) prevent a 
virus from installing anywhere on 
the server? Are there special inits 
for servers that do this? Does 
Gatekeeper do a better job than 
Vaccine? Am I correct in thinking 
that viruses only attach them- 
selves to applications and not 
documents? ... < 
Vaccine protects the system on 
which it is booted. Therefore, in- 
Stalling it on your server protects 
your server. I'd recommend Gate- 
Keeper for the server, though, as 
its operation is much more auto- 
matic; you tell it what you want to 
allow and by whom, and it silently 
permits or denies access as you 
require. logging any invalid ac- 
cesses. There is at least one virus 
(INIT 29) that can attach itself to 

Subject: BookEnds biblographer 
BookEnds Reference Manage- 
ment System Is HyperCard Stack- 
ware and it costs $99. Latest ver- 
sion Is 1 . 1 . as far as I know. It is 
provided by:- 

Senslble Software. Inc. 
335 E. Big Beaver. Suite 207 
Troy. Michigan 48083 (313) 

MS-DOS version Is also available 
(I don't have experience on that, 


- Database size is limited only by 
the free disk space. 
-It has categories for author, title, 
editor, journal, volume, pages. 

date, publisher, location, key- 
words, abstract, and classifica- 

- Each category can have \ip to 30 
000 characters 

- Convenient import abilities 

1. Tab delimited text flies (data 
type typical for most database 
applications in MacWorld) 

2. Other BookEnds databases 
(from Macintosh. Apple II or IBM- 

3. Dialog 

4. MedLine/MedLars 

5. BRS. MESH format 

6. BRS, Generic format 

7. MedLinc Knowledge Finder 

- Generates alphabetical listing of 
all unique authors and keywords 
in a database 

- Export to text files and to other 
BookEnds stacks 

- Duplicate references can be de- 
leted - A Journal Glossary with 
abbreviations of thejoumal name 
for easy source entering 

- Boolean AND. OR and NOT 
searches supported (although a 
bit limited) - References can to 

searched by scanning the stack, 
by the absolute number of the 
reference, with Search command 
(scans all the desired categories), 
or by Find command which scans 
only one category at the time . 

- Matches can be sorted by any 
two categories 

- Output can be formatted easily. 
1 editable formats can be used at 
one time. The order of 
categories, as well as author and 
editor names can be formatted 
(Fonts and styles cannot be for- 

- Output can be: 

1. Printed 

2. Sent to a text Me 

3. Sent to the word processor 
you like best 

- MultiFindcr compatible (not 
copy protected) 

These are the main features, some 
others are still available. 
Our experience so far: 
We have some 3400 references 
now, and the worst possible 
search (that is, searching all the 
categories and collecting the 
matches using quite simple AND 
or OR logics) will take our Mac II (5 
MB) about 9 and a half minutes. 
Searching from one category 
without a match list collected is 
almost Immediate. By using short 

search strings the search will be 
faster.Mac Plus is irritatingly slow 
(the job would take some 20 min). 
The most important feature for us 
is the Import capability. We can 
import references from Datastar's 
(in Switzerland) MedLine data- 
base >From the on-line log file 
with a converter program written 
in Fortran. I get the log file from 
our library and run a conversion 
application in our mainframe 
(VAX) and transfer the file to Mac 
II using the FTP protocol and 
Import the references. This takes 
only some 5 10 minutes in all. 
Datastar's MedLine can be im- 
ported without the conversion by 
using BRS. Mesh format import- 
ing in BookEnds. the drawback is 
that BookEnds cannot separate 
the categories In the reference 
source, so the source will go into 
category Journal. Also the au- 
thors do not always import cor- 

We are quite satisfied with Book- 
Ends, but it could be faster. It 
might be possible to Import refer- 
ences from CCOD (Current Con- 
tents on Disk), since CCOD can 
output the references In MedLine 
format. I don't have any experi- 
ence on that. Anyway, this would 
add the value of this package. 
Mikko Lamm! 
Department of Anatomy 
University of Kuoplo 

Subject: Hiding LaserWriters on 

I Just installed some Macs for 
student use here at Amherst, and 
have run Into a problem. Stu- 
dents laserprint here by creating 
postscript files and transferring 
them to our VAX where they get 
queued to a PrintSeiver40. All the 
new Macs are connected to an 
existing LocalTalk network In our 
staff offices, so they can use our 
FastPath box to get decent trans- 
fer speeds for the postscript files. 
We have a LaserWriter in our of- 
fice, too. and that's the problem. 
The problem is: The LaserWriter 
in the office shows up in the 
chooser, so people who don't hold 
down Command-F at the right 
time are tying up the "internal use 
only" LaserWriter. They don't ever 
see their printouts, either! (•grin') 
So. the question: Does anyone 
know anything about hiding de- 
vices on the LocalTalk network so 
they can only be seenfrom certain 




December 1989 

nodes, or visa-versa? We could 
always buy another KastPath box 
and configure them so they don't 
pass LocalTalk packets back and 
forth, but that's a pricey solution. 
Any help would be most apprecl 
ated. Thanks! 
Craig Garnett 

Micro Specialist (yeah, right) 
Box 2240. Amherst College 

From: Eleanor J. Evans 
Subject: Sick Plus 
Help! My Mac Is REALLY sick. It 
keeps spontaneously rebooting. I 
have tried it with a noise suppres- 
sion circuit, and the problem 
seems to be lessened (though that 
may be anomalous, because it is 
very sporadic), but the behavior 
has not gone away entirely. 
The machine cycles, rebooting 
several times before finally com- 
ing up again. The reboot has 
occurred in a couple of different 
packages, all of them games, ac- 
tually (this is a new/used ma- 

I'm working on a 2 1/2 year old 
Mac Plus that ljust bought. It was 
reported by the seller (and previ- 
ous owner) to have had no previ- 
ous problems - no need for serv- 

I'm not sure which details might 
be relevant - it hasjust 1 meg. I'm 
running System 6.0.2. the bomb 
occurs with the system 1 got from 
the seller on floppy and with the 
system that came on the hard 

drive I Just bought. 
The software I've been running is 
a set of games I've used in many 
machines over the last few years - 
Solitaire. Golf, (both by Michael 
Casteel ??). Billiard Parlotir. Iago. 
Reversi ... I have several copies of 
all of these programs ... I think 
they are part of a PD disk distrib- 
uted by one of the user groups, as 

The spontaneous reboot has oc- 
curred both while trying to click a 
response, and while a program 
was just sitting there on the 
screen. It has also occurred in the 
Finder, just sitting on a desktop. 
The machine never comes up 
cleanly. It always cycles, beeping 
randomly, sometimes staying 
blank for several seconds, some- 
times bringing up a screen before 
beeping and/or blanking again. 
Occasionally I even get the black 
lines across the screen. :-( 
Can anybody suggest a solution?? 
The noise suppression circuit I 
am using claims to have EMI/RFI 

circuitry. Is there a broader band 
circuit? Would using one help? 
Should I try doubling up on the 
circuitry? Is this even the right 
direction to be looking? Or should 
I Just take this to a dealer and fork 
over large amounts of money??? 
Eleanor Evans 

From: Dave Piatt 
Subject: Spontaneously-reboot- 
ing Mac 

Spontaneous reboots may be a 
sign that your Mac's power supply 
is either 111. or misadjusted. One 
way to check this would be to use 
a good voltmeter (preferably an 
analog meter) to monitor the +5 
voltage at one of the external ac- 
cess points... say, on the output- 
handshaking pin on one of the 
Mac's serial ports. If the voltage is 
more than about a tenth of a volt 
more or less than 5 volts, or if it 
jumps up or down when the 
machine reboots, then the power 
supply needs attention. 
A power supply that's adjusted 
too low, or too high, can be ad- 
Justed by a competent technician 
(one with Mac experience, of 

I believe I remember reading that 
the power supply Ln the Plus 
contains an overvoltage-protec- 
tion circuit, which "crowbars" the 
+5 (shorts it to ground) if the volt- 
age rises too high. This protects 
the Mac's circuitry, but causes 
the Mac to reset. This _might_ be 
what you're seeing. 

From: Tom Coradeschl 
Subject: Printing Excel Formu- 

>Excel (and other spreadsheets) 
normally display the formula only 
of the current cell. To check a 
spreadsheet's worth of formulas 
or to teach someone how to use a 
spreadsheet technique or for 
documentation, it would be use- 
ful to be able to print all of the 
formulas corresponding to a 
spreadsheet. < 

>Does anyone have or know of a 
program that can take a Excel 
format file or SYLK file and print 
out the formulas in it? < 
To print formulas in Excel (at least 
w/ vl.5). select "Display..." from 
under the "Options" menu. Click 
on the "Display Formulas" check- 
box and print as usual. If the 
formulas are much longer than 
the data they normally display, 
you'll have to reformat your col- 
umns, so the whole formula is 
visible. That's it! 

Another Excel related question, 
which came up as I was verifying 
the method I've Just described. 
How does one unprotect a work- 
sheet If you can't remember the 
password? There's gotta be a way. 
My boss has my manual at home, 
(and he's on travel to boot) so I 
can't look it up - assuming it is 
even in there. 
Tom Coradeschl 

Electromagnetic Armament Tech- 
nology Branch. 
US Army Armament Research. 
Development and Engineering 
Plcatinny Arsenal. NJ 

From: John Andrews 
Subject: Printing Excel Formu- 

To print formulae in Excel, use the 
Display command from the Op- 
tions menu to display the formu- 
lae on the screen, then print - 
voila. the formulae will print in- 
stead of the values (and I th ink the 
column width will automatically 
double, too). 

Note that with macro sheets, the 
process works in reverse — Excel 
prints macro formulae by default, 
but can display and print the cell 
values from the last run of the 
macro if you change the display 
option. This is useful for debug- 

From: Mike Dustan 
Subject: Printing Excel Formu- 

'n-y displaying formulas (choose 
Display... from the Options menu 
and click Formulas), 
Then save the worksheet as Text. 
Works every time. 
The format is ugly, but every- 
thing's there. 
Mike « 

Info-Mac digests consist of sub- 
missions by individuals on the 
academic computer networks. 
Submission and distribution of 
these digests is by network, mod- 
erated by volunteers at Stanford 

Usenet is a loosely-coupled net- 
work of co-operating academic 
and commercial computer sys- 
tems. It is a non-profit network 
whose primary aim is the sharing 
of technical information and the 
spreading of research results. 
Delphi is a commercial time- 
sharing and bulletin board sys- 
tem. The Delphi Digests are made 
available thanks to Jeffrey 
Shulman of Rutgers University. 

December 1989 


rS S 63 

Macintosh Technical Note #229 
A/UX 1.1 Toolbox Bugs 

#229: A/UX 1. 1 Toolbox Bugs 

Written by: Dave Radcliffe April 1989 
This Technical Note describes the latest information 
about bugs or unexpected "features" of A/UX 1.1 
affecting Toolbox applications and Macintosh bina- 
ries running under A/UX. We intend this Note to be 
a complete list of such bugs, and we will update this 
Note as necessary to provide you with the latest 
information. If you know of other bugs not described 
here, be sure to let us know at the address in 

Technical Note #0. 

Youshouldbe aware ofthese limitations even if you 
are not explicitly developing for A/UX; you never 
know when one of your users may want to run your 
application under A/UX. 


This Note documents the known limitations of the A/ 
UX Toolbox. These bugs affect both Toolbox applica- 
tions developed entirely for A/UX and Macintosh 
binaries running under A/UX. Whenever possible. 
a solution to work around the problem Is described. 
Not all bugs affect both Toolbox applications and 
Macintosh binaries. Be sure to check the scope of 
the bug to see if it affects your application. Also note 
that only Toolbox bugs are described here; develop- 
ment bugs which may be encountered developing 
traditional Unix applications are not documented in 
this Note. 

MPW 68881 Code 

An implementation goal of the hybrid SANE package 
provided by the MPW compiler is to provide a consis- 
tent exception handling mechanism. To achieve this 
goal, the 68881 libraries sometimes rely upon privi- 
leged FSAVE and FRESTORE instructions. If exe- 
cuted by Macintosh binary applications which run 
in the user state under A/UX. these two instructions 
will cause the program to crash. A/UX 1.1 fails to 
provide a mechanism for SANE to achieve its desired 

Scope: This bug only affects Macintosh binary 
applications developed with MPW 2.0.2 and 3.0 
Pascal or C and compiled with the -mc6888 1 option. 
Solution: The only sure solution to th is problem is 
not using the -mc68881 option, but if you choose to 
use this option for enhanced performance, you may 
still be able to avoid being bitten depending upon the 
types of floating point operations you perform. In 
general, any operation or function which is handled 
entirely by the floating point coprocessor is safe; this 
list includes the arithmetic operations add. sub- 
tract, multiply, divide, and square root. Most ele- 
mentary functions are safe only if you compile with 
the -elems881 option (or -d Elems881=true in Pas- 
cal). Other functions provided by SANE are not 
available with the coprocessor, and some examples 

include the Integer and general exponentiation func- 
tions Xpwrl and XpwrY. For a complete list of 
functions differentiated by their availability with 
SANE and with the coprocessor, refer to chapter 28 
of the Apple Numerics Manual Second Edition. To 
check your compatibility with A/UX 1.1. you can do 
a dumpcode on your application and search the 
output for an FSAVE instruction; if you find an 
FSAVE instruction anywhere in your application, it 
will not run under A/UX 1.1. 

Glue Routines 

The glue code in /usr/lib/libmac.a for the traps 
_GetCPixel, _Color2Index, and Jndex2Color is in- 

Scope: This bug only affects applications devel- 
oped under A/UX. 

Solution: Assemble the correct glue code which 
follows, and link it with your Toolbox applications if 
you need any of these routines: 

set CurrentA5.0x904 


























































64 B M 


December 1969 

Cursor Key Codes 

The cursor keys return an Incorrect virtual key code 
although the ASCII character code will be correct. 
The virtual key code is actually the raw key code 
described in the Toolbox Event Manager Chapter of 
Inside Macintosh, Volume V- 189. The correct map- 
pings are shown below: 


Raw Virtual ASCII 

Key Code Key Code Char Code 

Lea Cursor 0x3B 



Right Cursor 0x3C 



Down Cursor 0x3D 



Up Cursor 0x3 E 



Scope: This bug affects all applications. 
Solution: If your application relies on virtual key 
codes, you should test to sec if A/UX is running and 
perform the remapping yourself if it is. 


The following are miscellaneous travails you may 
encounter in your travels through A/UX develop- 

ment land. 

The header file /usr/include/mac/traps.h is not 
ncwline-terminated. which may cause the A/UX C 
compiler to generate strange and wonderful errors. 
You can add a newline after the final #cndif to solve 
the problem. 

The resource include file /usr/lib/mac/rin- 
eludes/types.T and the resource compiler utility / 
usr/toolboxbln/rez are no longer current. If you are 
developing under A/UX and relying upon newer 
resource definitions, you may need to compile your 
resources under the Macintosh OS then move them 
to A/UX. 

_PBGetVInfo always returns the same values in the 
loVNmAlBlks and ioVFrBlk Melds, specifically 5000 
and 1000 respectively. This is true for both Macin- 
tosh binaries and A/UX Toolbox applications. 

The A/UX Toolbox fails to correctly display the 
classic QuickDraw color green, instead replacing it 
with a very dark shade. This is true of both Macin- 
tosh binary and A/UX Toolbox applications. Other 
classic QuickDraw and Color QuickDraw colors 
display correctly. 
Further Reference: 
• A/UX Toolbox: Macintosh ROM Interface «fc 

Macintosh Technical Note #228 

Use Care When Swapping MMU Mode 

Written by: Cameron Birsc April 1989 

Tliis Technical Note describes how to avoid crashing 
when swapping into 32-bit mode on a Macintosh II. 
Thanks to Jim Berry and Dan Weston for pointing 
this out. 

There is a condition where calling 
.SwapMMUMode to switch the Macintosh II into 32- 
blt mode can cause the system to crash. This 
condition happens in code which Is loaded into 
memory from a resource, or Is placed in memory that 
was allocated by the Memory M anager and is subse- 
quently executed by using the master pointer as the 
address for a JSR instruction. Tills condition in- 
cludes stand-alone, executable code resources (i.e., 
'XCMD*. 'XFCN". 'INIT. 'ADBS7FKEY\ etc.). but does 
not apply to standard 'CODE' resources. 

When you load code into memory as a resource 
(i.e.. by calling _GetResource). the high byte of the 
master pointer contains Memory Manager Informa- 
tion. If you perform a JSR to the code (typically a JSR 
(AO) with the master pointer in AO). the entire master 
pointer gets translated directly into the program 
counter, including the high byte of Memory Manager 
information. Assoonasyou switch Into 32-bit mode, 
the program counter effectively has garbage In the 
high byte, and Hie machine goes directly into the 
weeds (do not pass go. do not collect $200). 

You can avoid this problem by cleaning up the 

program counter from within the resource code 
before calling _SwapMMUMode. The following ex- 
ample shows how to clean up the PC using MPW 
Pascal and C with inline assembly code: 

MPW Pascal 


INLINE $41FA. $000A, ( LEA *+$0O0C,A0 ) 




{ _StripAddress } 


( MOVEA.L D0.A0 } 


( JMP (AO) :jmps to next 

Instruction } 


pascal void FixPCO 

= (0x41 FA. OxOOOA 

, /• LEA *+$O00C,AO •/ 


/* MOVE.L AO.DO •/ 


/* _StripAddress •/ 


/* MOVEA.L D0.A0 7 


/* JMP 


;jmps to next instruction */ 

Further Reference: 

• Inside Macintosh, Volume V-59 1 . OS Utilities 

• Technical Note #212, The Joy of Being 32-Bit 
Clean « 

December 1989 


B 65 

MultiFit v 1 .5 

Norah Arnold reviews this Curve 
Fitting package for the Macintosh. 

The greatest strength of this curve 
fitting package for the Macintosh 
is that it allows the user to analyse 
data directly with the non-linear 

« Fill Edit DolQ 


66 000 
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b i ooo 

log ( 

2 26 
2 06 

1 7 


2 040 
I 1D0 

Simple linear 

Multiple lineor 
Triple EHpontntlal 


Edit Equation 



M5 3 




62.76 1 
66 934 

HI preference! 


flrpn Under Curve 

6 400 



Sleple Lineor Regr«i»ion o( V29 p« on l?/l 

Oependsnt vorlobU blood praaiure 

Michaeiis Monien 

(Mponenllol Decay 

Double EHp-onentlol 

Triple Exponential 

Exponential • Qffn 


lit Order Ret* 

Hill Kinetic ■ 


Simple Linear 


model required, rather than forc- 
ing the user to use linear regres- 
sion, a process which, as the au- 
thor says. Introduces weighting 

The publicity sheet for this pro- 
gram makes it sound very impre- 
sive:- 'Your model equation can 
contain up to 8 variable and 4 
constant parameters. Equations 
are built using normal arithmetic 
operators: +-•/; A (raise to a 
power); and parentheses. Built in 
functions are sine, cosine, tan- 
gent (all switchable between de- 
gree and radian operation). In 
(natural log), absolute value, 
square, square root and exp{e A ). 
Up to 2 repeated sub -expressions 
can be defined separately and 
referenced in the main equation." 

As you can see from the menus 
in the window above, the mathe- 
matical offerings are interesting 
and give the program a great deal 
of potential power. 

The documentation is quite 
good, produced effectively and 
easy to read and understand. Like 

t hip fdit Onta hi 

nearly all documentation it 
doesn't always tell you what you 
want to know. 

The User InterFace in MultiFit. 
I have one very 
strong criticism 
to make of 
MultiFit v 1.5. 
and this con- 
cerns the imple- 
mentation of the 
Macintosh User 
Interface which 
falls down at 
several points. 
It is good to be 
able to choose 
between win- 
dows showing 
only a single 
data column 
and a spread- 
sheet approach which allows the 
user to view 
more than one 
column of data 
at a time, but 
the pleasure of 
being able to 
switch from one 
to the other 
wears thin very 
quickly because 
of the limita- 
tions of the im- 
For instance, in 
the spreadsheet 
mode it is not 
always appar- 
ent to the user 

how to proceed to, for instance, 
create a new data column. It is 
easy enough once you know how 
to do it, but the Macintosh user 
should not have to puzzle out why 
the arrow keys will not function 
how you expect them to from your 
experience of other Macintosh 
The Logbook is an excellent idea 

which again is poorly imple- 
mented. Using the information In 
the Logbook window has to be 
done by selecting the text, copying 
and pasting into a text-handling 
program such as a word processor 
in order to change the font, etc. 
and print the Information. How- 
ever, it seems that the text selec- 
tion Is not fully implemented. 
Even if you make the logbook 
window larger you cannot select 
all of the particular text you need 
to copy in one go, without taking 
the cursor across to the scroll 
bars, scrolling up a bit, holding 
the shift key down and extending 
the selection. 

I am not sure whether the name 
MultiFit applies to the fitting of 
the mathematical models or the 
fitting of the numerous windows 
on the Mac screen. The 
Apple20GO member who came to 
me at the MacUscr Show asking 
for the little PD program that 
"tiles" your windows could very 
well have been using MultiFit. At 
one point I had among others, 
eight windows on the screen, four 
ofwhich were named 'Fitted* and 
four named 'Residuals' and I 
could not blame myself for forget- 
ting which applied to which par- 
ticular Linear Regression. 

The user interface has another 
serious fault at the moment in 
that the link to the Standard File 
routines in the Toolbox seems to 

blood prei 
l |hn 





Uniform N 

Untitled ? 

Standard Dev 

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log drug 

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6 153 



I 16 

1 OOO 

be most unpredictable and full of 
bugs. While running MultiFit on a 
Macintosh IIx I tried to close a 
single data column window and a 
dialog box appeared asking if I 
wished to save the changes I had 
made to the window. Before I 
could respond, the Macintosh IIx 
crashed and the "bomb" dialog 
appeared. I tried exactly the same 


B M 


December 1989 

* Flit Cdlt Dels F.l H 


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B«gr # «.lor. 35.995010*541 35 99501045*0 .597983*93 

Rfslduol 3069.89178199951 60.193956510 

Totol 3105. 60679215352 

Probability: 0.138137161 

i iiun lv w w- win r-aision oi i:29 pa on 12/11/69 
Da[>*nd*nl variable blood oreaaure 

In-dapandant uorlobla recovery 

procedure on a Mac Plus and 
there was no crash. 

Macintosh users become used 
to the luxury of always being of- 
fered a second chance and it is 
quite disturbing to find a Macin- 
tosh program that does not be- 
lieve the user when the mouse is 
clicked over the Cancel button. If 
a data window is selected and the 
close button Is clicked, a dialog 
box appears asking whether to 
save the changes. If you click "Yes* 
you get a Standard File Save dia- 
log, however clicking 'Cancel' at 
this point does not. as you would 
expect, return you to your screen 
unchanged, unfortunately your 
original data window has disap- 
peared Into oblivion when the 
dialog disappears. In other words 
you cancel the Save but not the 

you Cancel this, 
to your amaze- 
ment, up comes 
the Standard 
File Save dialog, 
and clicking 
Cancel on this 
removes your 
whole graph. 
The most disap- 
pointing part of 
the implemen- 
tation is the 
graphics capa- 
bilities of Multi- 
Fit. The variety 
of graphs and 
tabulations that you would expect 
to see in a program of this nature 
are just not there. Also, once you 
have your Scat- 

twenty little windows around or 
struggling with a spreadsheet 
mode which Is not at all Intuitive. 
Mathematically, the program Is 
better and I have fewer criticisms 
of it from that angle except to say 
that in Ttlple Exponential Fit 
there is not sufficient checking 
being done in the mathematical 
routines. Clicking cancei does not 
result in any action immediately, 
sometimes not until a further six 
iterations. Similarly there ap- 
pears not to be sufficient checking 
of the difference between one it- 
eration and the next, with many 
unnecessary Iterations being cal- 


ter Graph on the 
screen. the 
graphics arc 
handled in a 
very crude way 
by Macintosh 
standards. You 
are able to pick 
up the axis la- 
bels with the 
mouse and 
move them, but 
when you do the 
label disap- 
pears for two 
seconds (even if 
you are only se- 
lecting it, not moving it), and then 
reappears mak- 

* Fl 

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sure vs. recovery 
60.000000000 n 


Untitled Scotter Graph 

o ooooooooo 


50 ooooooooo 

blood pressure 

90 000000000 

The same type of problem ap- 
pears when using graphs. If you 
click the close box on a graph you 
get the dialog which asks if you 
wish to save changes. Clicking 
Yes* will get you a dialog asking 
whether the saved file is to be PICT 
or MacPaint {again a very useful 
option and a nice touch if the 
implementation was better). If 

ing the whole 
graph shudder. 
Even this would 
not put me off if 
the end result 
was worth 

printing and 
looked really 
good, but you do 
not have any 
control over the 
appearance of 
the text, so the 
effect of the 
graph does not 
come up to nor- 
mal Macintosh 

I suspect that the writer of the 
program may be someone who is 
quite accustomed to having the 
annoyance of a poor user inter- 
face intruding between his 
thoughts and his manipulation of 
the data via the screen. Macintosh 
users are not used to this and so 
find it unacceptable to be moving 

At the moment, I could not recom- 
mend anyone to buy MultiFit 
unless the price asked by some of 
the better known packages was 
beyond their reach. However, I 
hope that the writer of the pro- 
gram continues to refine the im- 
plementation, because if he does, 
then one day MultiFit may be a 
very good choice. fl 


Product: MultiFit v 1.5 
Publisher : Day Computing 
Available from : 

Day Computing 

P.O. Box 327 



CB4 4WL 
Price: £80.00 

Value : « «« 

Performance : « « 

Documentation : * • « * 

December 1989 




Software Circus 

Information about some lesser known items of Software. 

Software Title: TableTools 
Date Released: 01/1989 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh Plus, 
Macintosh II, Macintosh SE A demo disk is avail- 

Price in US $ 3.5" disk 395.00 
Notes: Designed to meet a wide range of 
publishing needs. Incorporates versatile table 
creation tools, a complete word processor, compu- 
tation of numeric data using Microsoft Excel, 
placement of graphic, paint, and chart objects 
inside table cells using other Macintosh applica- 
tions, style sheets for fast formatting of text and 
tables. Also provides the ability to exchange data 
between TableTools & other Macintosh applications. 
Published by: Mansfield Systems. Inc. 
Publisher's address: 550 Hamilton Ave., Suite 150 
Palo Alto, CA 94301 
Telephone: 415-326-0603 

Software Title: Key Master 

Date Released: 12/1988 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh 

Price in US $ disk 99.95 

Notes; Imports art from Macintosh drawing 

programs Into a high resolution PostScript Font. 

Resizing artwork is as simple as changing font size. 

Imports encapsulated Postscript and/or PICT files. 

Published by: Altsys Corp. 

Publisher's address: P.O. Box 865410 

Piano. TX 75086 

Telephone: 214-596-4970 

Software Title: Aceu-Weather Forecaster 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh. IBM PC 
fit compatibles 
A demo disk is available. 

Memory Requirements; Macintosh 1Mb, IBM 512k 
Price in US $ disk 89.95 

Notes: Turns a PC or Macintosh into a weather 
station. Using a modem, users download live 
weather data, which can then be seen in several 
easy-to-understand formats — charts, narratives, 
maps & graphs. The connect- time is kept to a 
minimum, usually $2 per download. Recommended 
for home & school education, for weather-related 
businesses, & for people who enjoy "weather watch- 
ing. " 

Published by: Metacomct Software 
Publisher's address: P.O. Box 31337 
Hartford. CT 06103 
Telephone: 203-223-5911 

Software Title: Harmony Grid 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh 
Price In US $ 3.5" disk 99.00 
Notes: MIDI-based lmprovisaUoiial tool which en- 
ables users to leam the basics of harmonics. 
Contains documents through which users move the 
mouse to learn intervals, chords, modes, and 
traditional keyboard patterns. The program shows 
basic harmonic structures with graphics & shapes 
on the Macintosh screen. Users learn the musical 
concepts at their own pace and create chords, 
modes, and interactive instruments. Includes 24 
documents, reference cards, over 60 explanatory 
figures, and material including the basics and more 
advanced instruction for sophisticated musicians. 
Supports the Mac's 4-voice internal sound. 
Published by: Hip Software Corp. 
Publisher's address: 117 Harvard St., Suite 3 
Cambridge. MA 02139 
Telephone: 617-661-2447 

Software Title: Master Tracks Pro, Version 2.0 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh 512E, 
Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh II; Atari 
520ST, 1040ST, Mega ST 
Price in US $ 3.5" disk 349.95 
Notes: The Macintosh version is compatible with the 
Macintosh II & with Multlfinder. A dialog window 
is added for automatic setting of punch-in and out 
points. Users can also set the punch in/out region 
by highlighting the area in the song or step windows. 
A conductor track data window has been added to 
the windows menu. This window graphically reflects 
changes made to the conductor track from the 
change window, or with the pencil and eraser tools. 
Improvements have been made to elapsed time, 
quantize window and measure insertion. 
Published by; Passport Designs, Inc. 
Publisher's address: 625 Miramontes St. 
Half Moon Bay, CA 94019 
Telephone: 415-726-0280 

Software Title: MetCom Modula-2 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh Plus. 
Macintosh SE. Macintosh II 
Operating Systems required: System 4.1 or later 
Price in US $ 3.5" disk 245.00 
Notes: Integrated programming environment for 
the Mac includes a multiwindow text editor, a one- 
pass compiler, and an Interactive debugger. The 
MetCom Editor uses information from the 
compiler to show various positions in the source 
program where syntactic errors occur. The one-pass 


2 M 


December 1989 

compiler generates native code for the 68000/ 
68020 Processors, and the code needs no explicit 
linking. Each compilation produces two files: an 
object file used by the linker for execution, and 
a reference file used by the source-level debugger. 
Programmers can view the execution environment 
at runtime with the runtime examiner. If an error 
occurs, the debugger is called. A variety of libraries 
and Macintosh interface modules are included with 
the program. 

Published by: Metropolis Computer Networks, Inc.: 
Publisher's address: Trimex Bldg.. Rte. 1 1 
Mooers. NY 12958 
Telephone: 514-866-4776 

Software Title: MacFortran MPW 
Date Released: 02/1989 

Hardware Compatibility: 68020/68881 or 68030/ 
68882-based system Price in US $ 495.00 Notes: 
Designed for Apple's Macintosh Programmers 
Workshop environment. Fully validatible ANSI 77 
compiler including all military 1753 extensions. 
Also supports most VAX/VMS, many Fortran 8X 
extensions, namelist, and COmplex*16. Provides 
complete inter- language calling with the MPW C & 
Pascal compilers, supports the toolbox, and is 100 
percent compatible with Apple's Standard Arithme- 
tic Numerical Environment & the standard Apple 
debugging environment. 
Published by: Absoft corp. 
Publisher's address: 2781 Bond St. 
Rochester Hills. MI 48309 
Telephone: 313-853-0050 

Software Title: KeyMaster 

Hardware compatibility: Apple Macintosh Plus. 
Macintosh SE. Macintosh II 
Price In US $ 3.5" disk 99.95 
Notes: Font product that lets users create high- 
resolution PostScript fonts from Macintosh art- 
work. Users can organize a library of drawings and 
print it in line with regular text. Imports images in 
EPS format from Aldus FreeHand, & Adobe 
Illustrator and in PICT form from MacDraw II, 
SuperPaint and other Macintosh object-oriented 
drawing programs. An integrated bitmap Font 
Editor allows touch up of the fonts after they have 
been created. Each font supports up to 16 graphics 

Published by: Altsys Corp. 
Publisher's address: P.O. Box 865410 
Piano. TX 75086 
Telephone: 214-596-4970 

Software Title: MacPrint 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh Plus. 
Macintosh SE. Macintosh II 
Price in US $ 3.5" disk 149.00 
Notes: Device management tool that lets users 
drive LaserJet. DeskJet, or any Hewlett-Packard 
compatible printers from a Macintosh. It is Installed 
as a Chooser level device and Is then operated with 
standard Mac printer dialog boxes. The MacPrint 
Chooser shows each printers' features, and lets 
users print in duplex and create cover pages. Uses 
the resident fonts of the printer and also lets users 
create a printable font based on the Macintosh 

QuickDraw screen font In print resolutions of 300. 

150. or 75 dots per inch. 

Published by: Insight Development Corp. 

Publisher's address: 1024 Country Club Dr. 

Moraga. CA 94556 

Telephone: 415 376-9451 

Software Title: Prototypes Version 2.0 
Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh Plus. 
Macintosh SE. Macintosh II 
Price in US $ 3.5" disk 249.0O 
Notes: Includes C code generation capability and 
other features to help a programmer design user 
Interfaces and prototypes of applications. Supports 
hierarchical and pop-up menus, offers support for 
large screen monitors, and includes linking facilities 
to help users create full mock-up prototypes of 
applications. With the linking facilities, users can 
link controls to open or close windows, dim or 
undim menus, or use the Macintosh's standard 
open, print, page setup, and save dialogs. Supports 
the leading C compilers, being able to generate 
source code for Lightspeed C and MPW C. Included 
are code generators for both Pascal and C. These 
code Generators also create all standard Mac user 
interface resources. 
Published by: SmethersBames 
Publisher's address: P.O. Box G39 
Portland. OR 97207 
Telephone: 503-274-2800 

Software Title: MacTAE 
Date Released: 1988 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh. DEC 

Memory Requirements: Macintosh 512kk 
Price in US $ 5000.00 

Notes: Consists of two communications programs 
that allow a Macintosh to function as a VAX 
front-end workstation. Based onMacWorkStation. 
the programs enable users to access data & execute 
programs on the VAX using the standard Macintosh 
interface. Supports MultiPInder. allowing users to 
transfer data from VAX applications into Macin- 
tosh Programs. The program also supports desk 
accessories. A connection command Language 
(CCL) Provides a scripting capability for automati- 
cally logging onto the VAX; Extended code 
segments (ECS) enable users to integrate programs 
in custom configurations. 
Published by: Appaloosa Systems 
Publisher's address: 345 Flume Rd. 
Aptos. CA 95003 
Telephone: 408-662-2473 

Software Title; CODECHECK 

Hardware Compatibility: Apple Macintosh; IBM PC 
& compatibles. PS/2 

or higher; OS/2 Standard or Extended edition; 
System 6.0 or higher with Finder or MultiFinder 
Memory Requirements: DOS 512k, Macintosh 1Mb. 
OS/2 2000kk 
Price in US $ 295.00 

Notes: Designed to target code for portability 
between DOS. OS/2, UNIX. VMS. and the Macin- 
tosh environments. Analyses source code for 

December 1989 


M & 69 

portability, maintainability, and style, without re- 
quiring the programmer to own more than one 
operating-system based machine. The expert sys- 
tem allows users to modify its rules, allowing them 
to tailor it for just one platform that users want to 
port to. or to conform to corporate or Individual 
standards. Users can also alter the program to work 
In a foreign language. 
Published by: Abraxas Software, Inc. 
Publisher's address: 7033 SW Macadam 
Portland. OR 97219 
Telephone: 503-244-5253 

SoRware Title; Stix 

Date Released: 1985 

Hardware Compatibility; Macintosh 

Memory Requirements: 128k 

Price in US $ 14.95 Warranty included. 

Notes: A Macintosh Desk Accessory that fills the 

same niche as the Puzzle. Stix, in theory, isjust a 

pair of balls connected by an elastic string bouncing 

around the screen leaving a trail of lines Published 

by: UNICOM Software Development Group 

Publisher's address: 400 Reservoir Ave,, 

Suite 3L 

Providence. Rl 02907 

Telephone: 401-785-3636 

Software Title: Flash Finder, Version 2.0 
Date Released: 1985 
Hardware Compatibility: Macintosh 
A demo disk is available. 
Memory Requirements: 128k 
Price In US $ 39.95 Warranty Included. 
Notes: Tlmesavlng Tool for Apple's Macintosh. Lets 
user open applications & files more than 300% 
faster than other finders. User can also delete and 
rename files; files are listed alphabetically and al- 
lows user to free up 40k of space on each diskette 
Published by: UNICOM Software Development 

Publisher's address: 400 Reservoir Ave.. 
Suite 3L 

Providence. RI 02907 
Telephone: 401-785-3636 * 

Implementing Undo 

Larry Rosenstein, Object Specialist at Apple Computer 
Inc., answers a question from Paul C. Ossenbruggen 

Question: Does anyone have any experience writing rou- 
tines to handle undo? If you have, could you give me an 
overview of the procedures involved for implementing it In 
a graphics environment? I'd mainly like to know how you 
store the Info that has been deleted and then restore it 
without creating anornolles. It would be really helpful if 
you had some example code I could look at. 

Answer. Tnere are 2 implementation techniques you can 
use for Undo. I will use a drawing program as the example, 
since that seems to be what you are asking about. 
The straightforward technique is to save enough Informa- 
tion so that the command can be reversed. For example, 
if you move a bunch of shapes, you can save the distance 
they were moved and then to Undo this you simply move 
the same shapes In the opposite direction. 
This assumes that you know what shapes were Involved in 
the command, which means you also have to remember 
the selection a( the time the command was done. The 
easiest way to represent selections In a graphics document 
Is to add an isSelected bit to each shape. To remember the 
current selection, therefore, you can add a wasSelected 
bit. (This breaks down if you wanted to implement 
multiple levels of undo, however.) 

So when you do the command you copy the isSelected bits 
into the wasSelected bits, and do the command. To undo 
it, you copy the bits back, and then reverse the command. 
This means that alter the Undo the selection will be the 
same as when the command was originally done, which I 
think is the right thing to do. 

This technique breaks down when the amount of Informa- 
tion you have to remember becomes large or difficult to 
deal with. For example, consider the Bring to Front 
command. In this case you would need to remember the 
exact position of each shape in the list . so that you can put 
it backln the right spot. This would either require an index 

field in each object, or that you make a copy of the list of 
shapes, etc. Any of these approaches uses a lot of memory. 
Many commands in a graphics editor are like this {e.g.. 
changing the fill pattern in the selected shapes). 
Trie solution, therefore, is to pretend the command has 
been done. You don't change your internal data structures 
to bring the shapes to the front, but you display them on 
the screen as if the data structures had been changed. You 
can think of this as a filter th at you place between the data 
structure and the display code. With the filter In place. It 
looks as If the command has been done, but to undo the 
command you can simply remove the filter. 
Assume that the shapes are normally drawn from back to 
front. Hie Bring to Front filter changes this order by 
drawing all the unaffected shapes first, and then running 
through the list a second Ume drawing the affected shapes. 
Similarly, im piemen ting change AH pattern involves a fl Iter 
that draws each affected shape with a new pattern, rather 
than the one stored with the shape. 
Using filters adds a complication. When the command can 
no longer be undone, then the filter must be committed 
against the data structures. In the case of Bring to Front. 
for example, this means that when the user does the next 
command you first have to adjust the list of shapes to 
(finally) execute the Bring to Front command. Note that 
you don't do this if the user has undone the Bring to Front 
command: In that case, the filter Is not being used. 
In MacApp. we use command objects to represent un- 
doable commands. Tne TCommand class lias a Commit 
method (in addition to Dolt. Undolt. and Redolt). just so 
that you can implement filtering. MacApp will call the 
Commit method Just before It calls the Dolt method of the 
next command object (assuming that the old command 
hasn't been undone). 

I don't have any example code that shows the use of 
filtering, so I cant help out there. * 

70 S =B 


December 1989 

H^te Apple Specialists: <fel 0775 85481 


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December 1989 



HyperCard Forum 

Questions and answers from HyperTalk programmers. 

HyperCard access to external applications? 

From: Annie Fetter @ Visual Geometry Project. 
Swarthmore College, PA 

Klm@wayne.UUCP recently posted a question on 
about how HyperCard accesses external applica- 
tions . There is a brief comment in Danny Goodman's 
HyperCard Handbook, but not much else (as noted 
by Kim). Here's what I know about It. The following 
button script from my home card is an example: 

on mouseUp 
global machine 
StdFlle(machine & ";Applications:RGS 4.0") 

if optionKey Is down then 

set cursor to 4 

open "Ready. Set, Go! 4.0" 

put fileNamerRSGK") into docFile 

if docFile is empty then exit mouseUp 

set cursor to 4 

open docFile with "Ready. Set. Go! 4.0" 
end if 
end mouseUp 

This button takes me directly toRSG if the option key 
is down, or allows me to open RSG documents in the 
folder M :Applications:RSG 4.0". StdFile is anXCMD 
(?) that tells HyperCard where to look for a file or 
application. In this case. RSG lives on my hard disk 
("machine", or just put the name of your source) In 
a folder called Applications In a folder called RSG 
4.0. flleName is an XFCN which will give you the 
standard Mac file dialog box. suspending action in 
the HyperCard handler. You simply pick your file, 
and fileName will put the name of the file and its 
complete pathname into docFile. The "RSGK" tells 
HyperCard what kind of resource it should give you 
the option to open. "RSGK" is the kind of file created 
by Ready. Set. Go!. Another example. "WDBN" Is the 
kind created by MS Word. You can find out this type 
by going Into ResEdit, picking a file created by the 
application you want, and doing "Get Info." This will 
tell you the resource type. You can also get this using 
DiskFit. Hope this helps! 
Annie Fetter 

Department of Mathematics 
Swarthmore College 
Swarthmore, PA 19081 
(215) 328-8225 

How about static fields??? 

From: JirnTaylor 

Whoah, wait a minute! Am I missing something 

here? Annie Fetter says she prefers field text to paint 

text because it looks better. Unless I am sorely 
mistaken (notice the "escape clause" brought about 
by "net-foot-in-mouth paranoia"?), they're both 
exactly the same. In fact, painted text Is usually 
safer than field text because it won't be screwed up 
If you run your stack on a different system which 
doesn't contain the fonts you use. Whenever I want 
my text to look good no matter who's Mac it's running 
on, I paint It. (Unless there's a lot of It; in which case 
I make sure to Install the appropriate fonts in my 
stack with Font/DA Mover.) 
Jim Taylor 

Microcomputer Support for Curriculum, 
Brtgham Young University 

From: Stephen Kurtzman @ University of Southern 
California, Los Angeles. CA 

In his article JirnTaylor writes: "Annie Fetter says 
she prefers field text to paint text because it looks 
better. Unless I am sorely mistaken [..J they're both 
exactly the same. In fact, painted text Is usually safer 
than field text because It won't be screwed up if you 
run your stack on a different system which doesn't 
contain the fonts you use." 

Field text looks a whole lot better when printed on a 
LaserWriter. When printing the painted text Hyper- 
Card can't tell that it should use a LaserWriter font, 
so it Just does a bit map dump. If Apple is listening: 
Please make HyperCard use LaserWriter fonts for 
button text. When I print my cards on the Laser- 
Writer the button names always look terrible com- 
pared to the text fields. 

MacUser SuperCard article... 

From: Tony Jacobs @ University of Utah CS Dept 
Take a look at the SuperCard article In the February 
MacUser. SuperCard might actually live up to it's 
name. SuperCard will support any size & number of 
windows along with any type of window, menus, 
graphical objects, standalone stacks, polygon but- 
tons (in fact any object can act as a button), Hyper- 
Card stack conversion, compatibility with Hyper- 
Talk (future versions too), and then a lot of other 
advanced features. It sounds pretty incredible. Now. 
if Apple will just leap frog SuperCard with version 2.0 
(perhaps by building it into the operating system or 
into the Rorns or some such wild thing) we'll be 
getting into some real serious objective program- 

Tony Jacobs 

Center for Engineering Design 
CS Dept 
University of Utah 

72 QdiM 


December 1989 

Trapping RETURN key 

From: Joe Melvin <Q> Class of '91, Carnegie Mellon, 

Pittsburgh. PA 

The following code in your field script will work: 

on retumlnField 

-your code here 
end retumlnField 

You must be using HC 1.2.1 or higher for this to 
work. See the release notes on this version of HC for 
more info. 
Joe Melvin 

Timers and editing 

From: Richard G Brewer @ Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute. Worcester. MA. USA 

Andy Stadler writes: Can you post a little more info 
please? Well here's the sample script: 

On MouseUp 

wait for 10 seconds 

visual effect dissolve 

go to next card 
End MouseUp 

It would be nice if when one selects a tool from the 
tools palette, card scripts would become inactive, as 
this would avoid many a hastle when creating and 
editing an automated HyperCard presentation. As It 
is now. I have to enter a unique name for each card, 
and remember/write down it's name and where it 
appears in the stack, then type "edit script of card 
CARDMNAME" from the command box whenever a 
change needs to be done... 
Richard G. Brewer 

Tricks, Cheap Tricks 

From: Andrew Stone CS.DEPT® University of New 
Mexico. Albuquerque, NM 

WOW! Here is a really cheap and powerful way to do 
word searches In an automated fashion. Since a 
mouseup is sent to a field whether it is locked or 
unlocked, the locktext of the field does not matter. 
Basically, if the commandKey is down when you 
click on a word, the "square outline" of the find 
mechanism surrounds the word clicked on. Drag- 
ging this "find selection" over contiguous words 
expands it. This places whatever was surrounded 
Into the message box. Releasing the mouse sends 
the mouseup to the field. Here is a simple field script 
to put this feature (Dan. is it going away?) to use: 

on mouseup 
if the commandkey Is down then 
put the msg Into what 
find whole what 
end if 
end mouseup 

Comments, Criticisms. Congratulations? 
Andrew Stone 

Read from file* write to flic 

From: Michael J Antonio 

Relieve it or not. HC actually DOES have an end of 

file marker. The following script works fine for me. 

on dolt 

read from file <AleName> until empty 

put the number of chars in it 
end dolt 

From; Andy Stadler @ Apple Computer Inc, Cu- 
pertino. CA 

In answer to Richard G. Brewer: 
Well, when you select a tool from the tools palette, the 
scripts DO become inactive! Actually, the rule is 
this: Messages are only generated when the browse 
tool is selected (cursor = hand w/flnger). The scripts 
are there, of course, but when any other tool (button, 
field, or any paint tool) is selected, no messages will 
be transmitted. So. I'm still not clear about your 
problem... Sony! 


From: Chris Clifton @ Dept. of Computer Science. 
Princeton University 

Does anyone out there know of educational uses of 
HyperCard? In particular, I am Interested in software 
(okay, I guess I should say stacks, right?) which can 
be used to set up readings, etc. which follow a 
curriculum. This isn't for computer science or 
computer scientists, but a reasonable knowledge of 
HyperCard on the part of the instructor setting up 
the course might be a reasonable expectation. Any- 
way, if anyone knows of something like this, please 
drop a line. Email is preferable, as I'm not a regular 
HyperCard user or comp...hypercard reader. 
Thanks- Chris 

Automated Find: Fact I (Fiction Keywords: Find 

When writing to a file. I use option charactors as end- 
of-field markers. 1 also use them when reading files 
into a stack. 

Using fields with scroll bars 

From: Dan Dlugose @ UNC Educational Computing 

I-arry Riddle writes: "In addition. I have a button that 
is moved over the Une where the click was made and 
then the button's hilile property is set to true. All this 
works fine. However, my problem is when the user 
then scrolls to see other lines in the field. As soon as 
the user starts to scroll, I would like my button to 
become unhilited so as not to distract from the 
scrolling field and ruin the visual effect." 
I think you'll need overlaying button(s) or field(s). 
However, one invisible button over everything could 
decide whether it needed to unhilite any other but- 
tons, and then pass the mouseup. 
Dan Dlugose 
UNC Edu. Computing Service 

Usenet is a loosely-coupled network of co-operating 
academic and commercial computer systems. It is a 
non-profit network whose primary aim is the sharing 
of technical information and the spreading of re- 
search results. 

The questions and answers printed above 
downloaded from Usenet. 


December 1989 


□ 73 

5 20 

fisuGKC® ©IT flBl f 

The 1990 Ed 

An in-depth review by Ceri Fisher, 
who really enjoyed using this "game 

Playing the Game... 

At long last, a long-awaited meet- 
ing between nie and Balance of 
Power 1990, the ultimate com- 
puter board game. 

A player take the role of either 
President Bush or President Gor- 
bachev, and with it, the ultimate 
responsibility for maintaining 
world peace for 10 years... 

It is possible to not only survive, 
but win, by making such decisive 
yet humane policy decisions that 
the winner's prestige surpasses 
that of the loser. 

This question of prestige is cen- 
tral to BoP's Tnodcl* as it bears not 
only on the scoring but also as a 
major factor In the separate deci- 
sions marie during the game. 

This may seem strange to some, 
but consider how the media and 
world reaction was followed as 
closely, maybe more so, than the 
events themselves In recent hap- 
penings such as the failed Nicara- 
gua coup, where attention Imme- 
diately re-focussed on Bush's 'in- 
decisiveness* and how this would 
itself affect future foreign policy 
decisions, which would in turn 
affect how foreign powers sought 
to relate to him. 

There are three levels of play 
which provide increasingly subtle 
and authentic control of Interven- 
tion in world events. 

However, the aim is always the 
same - increase prestige at the 

opponent's expense, expand the 
sphere of influence (equivalent to 
the number of friendly countries), 
keep the peace. 

At the first level, every country 
apart from the two superpowers is 
assumed to be in a state of tension 
between Its government and in- 
ternal "insurgents", and at this 
level the cause is immaterial: "the 
primary significance of a local 
insurgency is that it is an excel- 
lent vehicle for pursuing larger 
and more important superpower 
goals", (rej: 'Balance qf Power 
1990 Edition'. The Manual) 

The basic idea is to identify 

friends, in order to support them 
if necessary, and enemies who 
could be replaced by friendlier 
regimes. A number of different 
map-display options show inter- 
naUonal dispositions — the web 
of International diplomatic rela- 
tions, the state of internal tension 
in each country, prestige value 
and sphere of influence. Any 
country can also have all display 
all these factors and variables in a 
single full-screen table. 

Additionally, a very impressive 
database of actual facts and fig- 
ures of economic and social fac- 
tors (presented in the context of 
the world map — by relat ive rank- 
ings or quartile groupings) is an 
alternative display to the main 
game- play and is always avail- 
able. It would be worth paying 
something Just for that data, al- 
though BoP has only 80 countries 
(that'squite enough forthegame!) 

Beginner-level tactics focuses 
on four different "policies": 

•Military Aid (to a government); 

•Aid to Insurgents: 

•Intervene for Government: 

•Intervene for Rebels. 
The first two options involve 
military hardware options and 
are made by selecting the dollar- 
value of the hardware to be 
shipped. The third and fourth 
Involve sending a given number of 
troops, which Is far more sensi- 

Apart from a small amount of 
"airborne" muscle, hardware and 
troops must come from a neigh 
bouring friendly country where 
the superpower's troops are al- 
ready — an authentic detail. 

« Gome Countries Relations Moke Policies Euents Briefing loal 

BU^^BV" H ■ ^^^=^=a CJoseup: Argentina SSSSS 

— -=^-= 

USA Value 

USSR Value 


Ralntlnnshtp- Neutral 


Prestige Value: -3 



miliary Aid: $20 million 

$0 million 

$20 million 

insurgency Aid: $0 million 

$0 million 

$0 million 

Intervene — govt: (0 men5 

{0 men} 

6 men 

lntervene--rebs; men 



Economic Aid: $200 million 

t ($400 million} 

Desteblllzatlon: No activity 

No activity 

Pressure: None 


Treaty: (Trade relations) 

{Trode relations} 

Finlondizetion? Invulnerable 


Annual Change: Tiny decrease 

Tiny decrease 

Values in {brackets 

are maximum p 


Insurgency; Minor terrorism — insurgency growing 

Govt Philosophy: Slight right 

miliary Power: Minor 

Sphere of Influence: Neither 

Govt Stability: very shaky — weakening 


Capital: Buenos Aires Insurgency: 


74 B A 


December 1989 

Playing the game at any level In- 
volves a cycle of: 

•making policies by selecting 
targets (governments or rebels) 
for aid or intervention (after 
studying the Relations and 
Crises maps, or maybe the dif- 
ferent countries* newspapers); 
•reacting to the opponent's pol- 
icy decisions by selecting from 
the Events menu; 
These actions can be done in 
any order. 

Finally, when Next Turn is se- 
lected, the computer (or other hu- 
man) opponent gets a chance to 
do Just the same thing to the first 
player's decisions and policies. 

A typical policy decision is send- 
ing, say, $50 million of military 
aid to, say, a country In Africa. If 
this is one of the opponent's policy 
decisions then It will show up 
when the Events menu Item Is 
used to show the Opponent's 
Actions. Other actions also show 
up here but the decisions which 
can be reversed, maybe, have a 
display like that below (this is 
where the fun begins); 

wrong (and 111 say no 
more!). There is also a 
summary below them of 
the concerned country's 
relations to the superpow- 

At this point, one can 
move to the previous or 
next item in the folder, or, 
one can question this one. 
This is the diplomatic 
equivalent of 'raising an 
eyebrow', and it couldjust 
be that the opponent will apolo- 
gise for some unintended over- 
sight or error. Fine, no harm done, 
but maybe they are in earnest 
over this, and they decide to 
thumb their nose... 

The window changes to show a 
new decision button — chal- 
lenge, (one can back down also 
now) and below it the factors un- 
derlying the decisions both sides 
are trying to make — namely the 
degree of interest of each super- 
power and, the bottom line, the 
amount of prestige at stake (ini- 
tially zero until a challenge is 

| * «aw Cowntrna MUtitfti Mmr»im«^Hliiii 

power war) to Defcon 1 (Super- 
power war) can take less than 3 


In Souiet Union, 

Moscow sends first combat 
troops at request of Iraqi 
President Hussein. 

(PrpuiiMis I Nph* 

The Soviet government 
categorically refuses to 
modify its current course. 

Challenge] [Back Down 


■restige at Risk: 

USA Interest: Utmost 

USSR Interest: Utmost 

Mtmi»i rtiin 


in lowiai uiuob. 

HI 1 1 lory will* f«em Strrlil 
Unlet ". »* . c r. a in tvxert 
of raoaia m civil war in 

[frmioui] [ Htn\ | 
Tut USSR will aaart 
Ihtmsilvn ttr IhH nwtltr 
Dui would orarar ■ stacaiui 

Advisory: Congo 

•NfMiftU I*.-.* rwmm 


r^h.r. nll.lln.r... -r I . I., : i''.'-C 

mourgancu Civil war 

rett ef chinflt iiwT"K> gfjjM 

(o*rr«i il liirt D«iual 
Vrwiloj ■[ utifc 74 — 
USA in.rtti Utmoat 
U55» i"l»rt»'. IHlBMt 




i rem inmmttmm t- 

■MHtftflM I'-n»- twin— 
niiri»f|lil tOMUWn lIGOaaim* 

lilimu M.I Om> OSM 

iBKrvtaa--rtM: Q>wa ;a,uQoaM 

■^Ajtjft -$**> 'wS£!?Sc;ii. r'77 

fMIM COIHirMI Heiaiwn* MnKfl Poimn 

MIR Itlloni 

m '!-:.■!•! utwaa. 

noscow Mmta tirti camtal 
troop* at raowatl cf irael 
*Tiiia*ii ifciiain 

Prwtim] [ waul 


Advisory: Iraoj 




Spnara «f Inftnonca: fn-ij .:?: 
iniur gincy Sttont unrail 

f U of cnanga. 'mrfwycwm 

MtlUrf AI4- 


UUrvi ■•--»-. i OMa 

IciirM n- -..n . • 

USA U53fi 

■"I"' , •*."<> 

Mp*wH -ilm fli'lrir v taan 

Ifl Mil lu (0 HMIhM 

10 MIH.. IC l-llllt. 

5.000 «*• 

ugie^a «m&„ * 

Tlie left hand pane shows the 
policy decision, and that it is 
being questioned by the oppo- 
nent. The right-hand pane shows 
a panel of advisors and their 
comments on this situation. At 
first this seems a bit tacky, and 
after all, they often seem to be 
saying much the same thing. 
Well, I leamt that impression was 

Pressing challenge turns 
the matter 'public' and the 
next flash of the left-hand 
pane shows a fully- fledged 
diplomatic crisis, (unless 
the opponent backed 
down) . Now the stakes are 
higher — the prestige at 
stake has started to in- 
crease, maybe by a little In 
most of Africa, maybe by a 
lot In the Middle East. 
Backing down at this point 
will cost that number of prestige 

Challenging here will take the 
turn the crisis military, sooner or 
later (unless again, the opponent 
backs down first). If the prestige 
was trivial earlier, it will be high 
now, and the options become in- 
creasingly serious: from Defcon 4 
(low level of readiness for Super- 

"You always lose if a nuclear war 
starts; no points are awarded for 
any progress you had made. A nu- 
clear war is always a total loss for 
both sides." 

Of course this also hap- 
pens (in 'reverse ') when th e 
opponent chooses to ques- 
tion one of your decisions. 
Normally made during a 
series of such decisions on 
different countries, noth- 
ing much will happen un- 
til it Is the Next turn. 
Then. If the opponent is 
unhappy about it, the 
same sort of dialogue en- 
sues — with the same 
possible outcomes,,, 

This is the climax of play: I sit 
here biting my nails watching one 
after another of my carefully con- 
sidered policies being remon- 
strated against in verbose Sovi- 
etSpeak. occasionally challeng- 
ing (then threatening, then going 
to DefCon 3... Then starting 
again.) It's a lot like playing poker, 
I Imagine. 

Policies and crisis behaviour 
are noted world-wide — they be- 
come as much a part of history as 
the civil wars and insurgencies, 
and the opponent as well as minor 
countries have some memory for 
displayed weakness as well as 

At the end of each turn, the 
score is updated at the bottom of 
the screen. A pull-down option 
also shows how the superpowers' 

December 1989 


M 75 

scores have changed since the 
start of the game. and. at the end 
of the game, the same graph re- 

cordingly more interesting al- 
though it is Important to master 
Beginner-level first. 
The model at intermediate level 
is similar — two 

End of Game 

Multipolar Level 

Vou have kept the peace. 
Vour scores: 

gain this year: 

gain to date: 687 -224 




Individual nations can also be 
examined (using the Briefing -> 
History Item) to see how its poll- 
tics and relations have varied 
using a screen-full of graphs. 

Beginner-level play Is. In Mr 
Crawford's view, merely a taster 
— a way of getting started. The 
next level — Intermediate — is ac- 

and 78 other 
countries each 
with a different 
strength and po- 
larity of super- 
power relation- 
ship, each in a 
variable state of 
internal imbal- 
ance. However, 
here the cause of 
any internal fric- 
tion is assumed 
to be purely eco- 
nomic. (This 
may be seem to 
be too much of 
an overstmpliil- 
cation — but 
consider the 
number of other 
possible factors: 
In any case, it is 
Just right for 
Britain In the 

The economic 
well-being of 
thus is the main 
motivation for 
change, and, appropriately, one 
of the extra policy 'tools' provided 
at this level is economic aid. This 
can be used very creatively (and 
not always positively) — a regime 

can be 
1 toppled 
partly by 
up eco- 
nomic aid 
over a pe- 
riod of 
time, then 
drawing it 
with other 
n e o u s 
acts. The 
other new 
policy item is Destabilise — which 
covers a range of activities from 
Support for dissidents and en 
couraging riots to assassinations 

and triggering a Coup d'etat Of 
course, these policies can be the 
subject of a Challenge by the op- 
ponent, (and vice -versa) Just as 
previously-discussed options. 

The information available at 
this level is also augmented by 
options to view economic rela- 
tions and on-going or imminent 
coups-d'etat. So, why can't living 
conditions be improved through- 
out Africa through external eco- 
nomic aid? Well, you can try it ! 
Of course, intermediate-level 
play is Just a prelude to. .. expert- 
level play. Added to the model is 
the possibility that any non-su- 
perpower country will "Finlan- 
dlze" to one of the superpowers— 
that is, will become completely 
subservient for fear of the conse- 
quences of not doing so (and de- 
spite Us apparent politics). 

The policy options now include 
the making of Treaties — on a 
scale from No relations and Diplo- 
matic Relations to Conventional 
Defence and Nuclear Defence. On 
the negative side, there is the pos- 
sibility of exerting diplomatic 
pressure. The range of pressure 
is from Quiet Diplomacy (and 
None) — which often goes unchal- 
lenged, through Public Posturing 
(sic) all the way to a full-scale Dip- 
lomatic Offensive: "includes an 
array of actions such as holding 
naval manoevres off the coast of 
the victim, making speeches 
about their evil ways, or ostenta- 
tiously consulting with their de- 
clared enemies'. 

The information available is 
also now enhanced by a FiriLan- 
dize? map option — showing the 
likelihood that a country will sell- 
out to one superpower or the 
other as discussed already (also 
in the individual table display). 

Playing at this level is quite 
absorbing — a challenge at many 
difFerent levels simultaneously, 
and very exciting. The side-effects 
of policies and challenges become 
subtle and more far-reaching, 
and although IVe sketched a very 
black-and-white picture, suc- 
cessful play is far from so simple. 
When expert-level play has 
been mastered, the top level — 
"Multipolar-level" play — finally 
reveals the world as a frighten- 
ingry complex place. Each indi- 
vidual country is now an inde- 
pendent agent making its own 
policy decisions... these "minor 
countries" can even go to war if 


B A 


December 1989 

their relations deteriorate suffi- 
ciently. Thankfully their policy 
decisions are restricted to the 
level of a Beginner — that is. the 
movement of hardware and forces 
to a government or an Insurgency. 

The last extra Instrument of 
pol icy is now supplied : Trade Pol- 
Icy — from embargoes to fa- 
voured trade. This makes not an 
ounce of economic difference, but 
can provide a very definite nega- 
tive diplomatic message. 

Minor country decisions can be 
challenged (if one has Diplomatic 
Relations) via a "Minor Country 
News/Crisis" window, and they 
always back down if enough pres- 
sure is exerted — no possible 
Armageddon. The Minor Country 
crisis Is a curious, third party 
affair: Colombia (a friend) may be 
helping an Insurgency in Nicara- 
gua which, though an enemy. 
may have just Finlandised. The 
advisors say They won't back 
down" meaning Colombia, (al- 
though any minor country will 
eventually) , and aid can't be given 
to Nicaragua to bolster up the 
government because it's in the 
Soviet sphere of influence. Multi- 
polar play is very tricky ! 

The Manual excellent. It's well-organ- 
ised, well-presented, complete 
and chatty. As well as sections on 
both the mechanics and the 
mastery of each level of play, there 
is a reference section and fasci- 
nating chapters on the models 
used, and answering doubts 
about the realism of the game. It 
closes with a good bibliography, 
annotated with Mr Crawford's 
comments on each of his sources. 
Only one shortcoming — no In- 


I found it hard to remember 
which policies I'd made, where, 
when. Although a Relations map 
display can show the state of all 
policies (i.e. those which have 
been successfully implemented). 
1 found I needed a lot of scrap 
paper to keep track of which 
countries were getting what kind 
of treatment. It would be neat to 
have a single screen/table cover- 
ing new policies, maybe by area. 
Also, it would be good if the Close- 
up screen (on individual coun- 
tries) could also be used to enter 
or change policies: I found that 

policies were rarely applied sin- 
gly, and this would certainly save 
a number of "pull-downs'* for a 
single country. 

It's also difficult (often impos- 
sible) to Interfere with a country 
strongly in the Soviet "sphere of 
influence" — even to use firm dip- 
lomatic language against it. At the 
multi-polar level. I found myself 
not discouraging my allies who 
did want to go in there, but it 
would be interesting to be able to 
send In Lieutenant -Colonel Oliver 
North to do our bidding in secret. 
Such things could even blow into 
the open the following year to our 
embarrassment and subsequent 
loss of prestige. 

I wasn't sure if the Diplomatic 
Relations map was always en- 
tirely accurate — certainly the 
manual warns that relations can 
change quickly, especially during 
or after a coup (a democratic elec- 
tion Is a kind of coup, by the way. 
in BoP's view) . However, actually 
checking that hunch was slightly 
harder, due to not saving the 
game Just before the relations In 
question changed. 

It also seemed to me that aid to 
a country's government just be- 
fore a successful coup persisted 
as aid to insurgents afterwards — 
presumably, that includes some 
elements of the deposed govern- 
ment, but it surprised me as trea- 
ties are always annulled and it's 
not documented behaviour. How- 
ever, this is not a well -tested ob- 


It isn't copy-protected — but 
there is an occasional check by 
having to enter a key word from a 
given page of the manual. It's 
practically impossible to play 
without the manual anyway, so 
don't lose yours! 

No DA's. This was one of the 
biggest disappointments to me — 
the review took much longerwith- 
out instant access to Acta or 
anything. This would frustrate 
(but shouldn't deter) serious us- 
ers of this system who wanted to 
take notes and organise lots of 

It doesn't like MultiFinder. 

Screen-savers may be a prob- 
lem — BoP won't refresh the 
screen properly (probably the 
case against DA's). Moire seemed 
to be turned off by It. 

The game automatically saves 

to a file 'SavedGame'. and doesn't 
give the opportunity to name a 
game file (of course, the 
'SavedGame' file can be renamed 
/moved elsewhere, then moved 
back/renamed again...) or to save 
Just when you want to. Also, the 
automatically-saved game seems 
to be Just one move behind the 
game Just lost to Armageddon... 
which means making all those 
policy decisions again! 

However, to its credit, it didn't 
crash or display any strange 
behaviour at all. (it was tested on 
an SE). 

Those who know enough, or 
think they do, to see all the short- 
comings of this game shouldn't 
buy it. (the manual says so). 
Neither should those who 
couldn't care less. The rest of us 
may want or feel they need to 
understand more of what is be- 
hind international news-stories. 
Some of us have a responsibility 
to others who need to, in schools 
and colleges. Balance of Power 
1990 is an Incomparable vehicle 
for such group and individual 
work — a real eye-opener. It is a 
tribute to Mr Crawford, his pub- 
lishers, the Apple Macintosh, and 
all who hold to the wide vision of 
the "personal computer' as a tool 
for thought and education. 

It's very hard to rate a product 
like this on the normal 1-5 indica- 
tors. Readers should bear In mind 
that these ratings are not relative 
to most of the games which I have 
come across. "Balance of Power 
1990" is in a class of its own. * 


Product : Balance of Power 


Available from : 

Mac Line 
01 643 4626 

Price : £24.00 

(plus P&P and VAT) 

Value : 44444 

Performance : rftf *** 

Documentation : 4 4 4 4 4 

December 1989 


fll 77 




CONTACT - David Huckle Tel : 

VENUE - Deverill Computers (dealer) 

Itec House, 34-40 West Street, Poole, Dorset 

BH15 1LA 
MEETS • Four times a year 


CONTACT -Geoff Parson Tel : ctWtfr^uflSiim^l 

Tel ; OH -4****** litttffMI 
VENUE - Contact Geoff for details 

London Region 


CONTACT - Pat Bermingham Tel : "fipus 

VENUE - The Y.M.C.A.. Vlcloria Road. Chelmsford 

MEETS • Third Friday of every month 


CONTACT - Graham Attwood Tel : §§ »>MI 
VENUE • 515. Llmpficld Road. Wariingham, Surrey 
MEETS - 7.30pm on the third Thursday of every month 


CONTACT -Norah Arnold Td - 

VENUE - The Old School. 1. Branch Road, 

Park Street Village. St Albans. Herts.. 
MEETS - 8.00pm on the first Tuesday of each month 


CONTACF - Richard Daniels 


MEETS - Contact Richard 

Tel : i 

Wales and West 


CONTACT - Malcolm Ingsley Tel : -attt*tft iwiwiiHi* 
VENUE - Decimal Business Machines 

Three Queens Lane, Redclifie 
MEETS - 7th day of each month, or the Thursday 

nearest to it if the 7th falls on a Friday, 

Saturday or Sunday. 




Joe Cade Tel: t""" 

Thames Valley Systems (Apple Dealer), 
128 High Street. Maidenhead. Berkshire. 
SL6 1PT Tel 0628-25361 

7.00pm on the second Monday of every month 



VENUE - Apple Centre South Wales, Longcross Court 

47 Newport Road. Cardiff 
MEETS - Contact Apple Centre 

Tel : iw <*r 


CONTACT • Chris Williams 


MEETS - Contact Chris 


CONTACT - Maureen de Saxe Tel : ' t'=U: «*«*»• 

VENUE - Room 683. London University Institute of 

Education, Bedford Way. London, WC1 
MEETS - 6.00pm on the second Tuesday of every 



CONTACT - Jim Panks Tel : tfBtt d ■ ■■:«« 

VENUE - Sir Mark Collctt Pavilion, Hcavcrham Road, 

Kemsing, Sevenoaks, Kent 
MEETS - Phone Jim for details 


CONTACT - Mick Foy Tel : «r*tifr lHMli 

VENUE - D.P.S. Acorn House. Little Oaks. Basildon. 

MEETS - First Monday of each month 



CONTACT - H Ian Archibald 

Tel :«*&&**■*"'■ - 

Mac Richard Boyd Tel : ... 

VENUE - Impington Village College. Nrw Rd. Impington, 

His ton. 
MEErS - Fortnightly during term time with both Mac 

and Apple 11 on deck each night. 


CONTACT -Nick Helm Tel: 

VENUE - Wtlford Cricket & Rugby Club, Nottingham 

MEETS - S.OOpm on (he first and Ihird Wednesday of 

every month, 


CONTACT -Vem Tel : 'ft*** **HHt 

Robin Boyd Tel ; ■■«*«*» «•**!» 

VENUE Bob Hope Recreation Centre, R.A.K Mildcnhall 

MEETS - AMS conference room. Mildenhall base- 

Normally at weekends, check with Robin 
NOTE : Although the venue is on a service 
base it is not in a security restricted area so 
the club is open to interested parties. 


b m a g 


December 1989 


CONTACT - Bob Down Tel : 

VENUE - Shakespeare Pub. liraunslonc Lane. 

MEETS - 7.30pm lo 1 0.0pm nn the first Wednesday of 

every month 


the Norm i west apple users group 

CONTACT Max Parrot 

Tel : -ei: i: Rtt**4HW : 

Tel : ' u, 


MEETS - Ring Max 

CONTACT - Irene Fiaxman Tel; 

VENUE - Check with Irene 

MEETS - Second Monday of every month. 





- Tom Wright Tel 
I.T.E.C. Tildaslcy Street. West Bramwfch, 
West Midlands 

- 7.00pm on the second Friday of every month 


CONTACT Ivan Knczovich Tel : '$lp*tf 

VENUE - Spring Grove House, West Midland Safari 

Park, Rewdley, Worcestershire, 
MEETS ■ 8.00pm on the first Tuesday of every month 




- John Tracey Tel : rtlttta 

• Hill Crest School. Simms Lane. Netherton, 
Near Dudley. 

- 7.00pm on the second and fourth Thursdays 

of each month. 
NOTE - - This is not an Apple user club, it is a 
general Interest club which welcomes users of 

ail machines. There are currently two Apple 

user members. 



CONTACT - Rod Turnough Tel : I 

VENUE - Michelln Sports Centre 

MEETS - 2nd Wednesday of each month 


CONTACT Paul Edmonds 

VENUE - Christ Church Hall. Crewe 

MEETS - Fortnightly, Fridays, 7.30pm to 10.00pm 

NOTE: this Is a general interest group with 

Apple users among its members 


CONTACT - Peter Sutton Tel: 

No active organised group in this area but there 
are a number of keen Apple users in contact with 
each other. 


CONTACT - Philip Dixon Tel : «imim HHi I 

VENUE - Apple Centre North East. Pontcland Road, 

Ponteland. Ncwcastle-on-Tyne 
- First Wednesday of every month 





- Horse & Jockey Pub.. Winwick Road, 

- First Monday of every month 

Tel :.*)*>» (BMRH 



CONTACT - Ricky Pollock 


MEETS - Meetings monthly, check with Ricky 



CONTACT Philip Dixon TEL MM <:«*$* Ml] 

VENUE - None established yet 

MEETS - No meetings yet. has operated through 

postal newsletter published quarterly 
NOTE : Philip started the club some time ago based 
on a membership fee of £1 .00 to cover the cost of 
newsletters. Original intention was to concentrate 
on BASIC and Assembler programming. 

New Groups 



CONTACT - Ron Hoare 


MEETS Meeting on March 1st -contact Ron Hoare 


CONTACT -Terry Wheeler Tel : <&ufe-.i&t£i 

VENUE - G.E.A. Hall, Woodhurst Avenue. Petworth 
MEETS - Contact Terry 


CONTACT - Colin Wlthington Tel : 0302-53930 


MEETS - Contact Colin 


CONTACT - Bob Miller 


MEETS - Contact Bob 

Tel: =»=•: J :- •--■■ ■> : 

If you want to start a group, find out about a 
group that might be near you, please write or 
contact John Lee the Local Group Organiser at 
the PO Box in Liverpool, or phone John Lee on 

If you are a local group organiser and have not 
been in touch with John Lee, please contact 
John with details of your group, or any 
changes there may be to the above details. 

December 1989 


cS s 


Mo mb»fi* Smoli Artvftrti are FREE. 

PU«« fcelpuatohelpyou. Send your ad- 
vertise me nts to ui on ■ dllk. In Mac or 
Apple n text format. We will return ine 
dUk. oleoma*. This saves ui time, and 
avoid* error*. 

embers' Small Ads 

Momboti Small Adverts are F?rF 
Wr rrtrrvc the right lo cdli tod prorati 
them. They are placed In thli Ma£azlnc 
In good fnlth. Applc/uuu bold* do re- 
■ponklblllLy over Itcmt advertUcd. and 
buyers purchase at their own ri»h. 

WARNING: The sale of copied or pirated software is illegal. 
mease ensure that items offered for sale are new or are re-registered 


Apple 12" mono monitor. 

Unopened box, new condition ..£195 (negotiable) 

Phone Colin Howlett 

JHI *.,«.:« 


Apple II Europlus computer with twin disk drives, 
screen. Epson dot matrix printer, games joystick. 
Wordstar and memory boards plus various software 
to include Wordstar W/P, Systematics accounts pro- 
gramme. Visicalc. and all original demonstration 
programmes together with all original manuals. 
The total package £30° 

Phone J.S.Mitchell *! =M* !**» 


Abaton Interfax 12/48 dual fax/data modem - can 
convert received documents to TIFF. PICT and 
MACPAINT format. As new. boxed with registration 
card and manuals £320 (inc. VAT) 

'Phone Ahmet *l iTM « 


Apple IIGS colour 512k system: 
2 x Apple 3.5" drives 
Apple 5.25" drive 
Cirtech 1 Mbyte Plusdlsk 
GS-Ram 1.5 Mbyte 

Apple IIGS colour 512k system: 
2 x Apple 3.5" drives 
Apple ImageWriter LQ 

IIGS Software: 


Top Draw 



Palntworks Plus 

Systematics accounting packages 

Apple //e equipment etc.: 

Apple //e cooling fan (new) 

FastDos software 

Visiterm software 

C.I.A. software 

Mountain Computer CPS Multifunction Card 

Systematics accounting packages 

All the above is as new and has had very little use. 

Most items still in original packing. 

All items must go and the best offers will be accepted. 

Offers to Frank Hawkcs . 


....... ** 


Rodime 450RX internal hard drive for SE/II. 
Comes with Fastback backup software £350 

'Phone Mark Anderson ♦B Jlfr'f 

MM „ or (23 Dec-5 Jan) a*?**-*!!* 


Mono monitor for Apple IIGS 

— brand new. boxed and unopened £85 

MacDraw - brand new. boxed and unopened .£30 

•Phone Paula Spiterl ■>! WMB 


Advertisers' Index 

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Mac Line 







Open Apple/A2 Central 37 

Roger D'Arcy Computers 49 

Special MacUser Show P.D. Disk 49 


December 1989 

Abaton Scan 300/GS has all the 
features you would expect from a 300 
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Line art, halftone and grey-scale 
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When you consider the options, 
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Call Acme Computers today to place 
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on other Abaton products. 


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